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Subpart 27.4- Rights in Data and Copyrights

27.400 Scope of subpart.

(a) The policy statement in 27.402 applies to all executive agencies. The remainder of the subpart sets forth civilian agency and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) policies, procedures, and instructions with respect to (1) rights in data and copyrights and (2) acquisition of data. However, these policies, procedures, and instructions are not required to be applicable to NASA solicitations until December 31, 1987 (or until such other date as the NASA FAR Supplement is revised to accommodate the policies, procedures, and instructions contained in this subpart). Due to the special mission needs of the Department of Defense (DOD) and as required by 10 U.S.C. 2320, the remainder of the DOD policies, procedures, and instructions with respect to rights in data and copyrights and acquisition of data are contained in the DOD FAR Supplement (DFARS).
(b) Civilian agencies other than NASA shall implement Section 203 of Public Law 98-577 pertaining to validation of proprietary data restrictions.

27.401 Definitions.

As used in this subpart-

"Data" means recorded information, regardless of form or the media on which it may be recorded. The term includes technical data and computer software. The term does not include information incidental to contract administration, such as financial, administrative, cost or pricing or management information.

"Form, fit, and function data" means data relating to items, components, processes that are sufficient to enable physical and functional interchangeability, as well as data identifying source, size, configuration, mating and attachment characteristics, functional characteristics, and performance requirements; except that for computer software it means data identifying source, functional characteristics, and performance requirements, but specifically excludes the source code, algorithm, process, formulae, and flow charts of the software.

"Limited rights" means the rights of the Government in limited rights data, as set forth in a Limited Rights Notice if included in a data rights clause of the contract.

"Limited rights data" means data, other than computer software, that embody trade secrets or are commercial or financial and confidential or privileged, to the extent that such data pertain to items, components, or processes developed at private expense, including minor modifications thereof. (Agencies may, however, adopt the following alternate definition:

"Limited rights data" means data developed at private expense that embody trade secrets or are commercial or financial and confidential or privileged (see 27.404(c)).

"Restricted computer software" means computer software developed at private expense and that is a trade secret; is commercial or financial and confidential or privileged; or is published copyrighted computer software; including minor modifications of such computer software.

"Restricted rights" means the rights of the Government in restricted computer software as set forth in a Restricted Rights Notice, if included in a data rights clause of the contract, or as otherwise may be included or incorporated in the contract.

"Technical data" means data other than computer software, which are of a scientific or technical nature.

"Unlimited rights" means the rights of the Government to use, disclose, reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform publicly and display publicly, in any manner and for any purpose, and to have or permit others to do so.

27.402 Policy.

(a) It is necessary for the departments and agencies, in order to carry out their missions and programs, to acquire or obtain access to many kinds of data produced during or used in the performance of their contracts. Agencies require such data to: obtain competition among suppliers; fulfill certain responsibilities for disseminating and publishing the results of their activities; ensure appropriate utilization of the results of research, development, and demonstration activities including the dissemination of technical information to foster subsequent technological developments; and meet other programmatic and statutory requirements. Further, for defense purposes, such data are also required by agencies to meet specialized acquisition needs and ensure logistics support.
(b) At the same time, the Government recognizes that its contractors may have a legitimate proprietary interest (e.g., a property right or other valid economic interest) in data resulting from private investment. Protection of such data from unauthorized use and disclosure is necessary in order to prevent the compromise of such property right or economic interest, avoid jeopardizing the contractor's commercial position, and preclude impairment of the Government's ability to obtain access to or use of such data. The protection of such data by the Government is also necessary to encourage qualified contractors to participate in Government programs and apply innovative concepts to such programs. In light of the above considerations, in applying these policies, agencies shall strike a balance between the Government's need and the contractor's legitimate proprietary interest.

27.403 Data Rights-General.

All contracts that require data to be produced, furnished, acquired or specifically used in meeting contract performance requirements, must contain terms that delineate the respective rights and obligations of the Government and the contractor regarding the use, duplication, and disclosure of such data, except certain contracts resulting from sealed bidding or similar situations which require only existing data (other than limited rights data and restricted computer software) to be delivered and reproduction rights are not needed for such data. As a general rule the data rights clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, including Alternates I, II, III, IV, and V, where determined to be appropriate as discussed in 27.404, is to be used for that purpose. However, in certain contracts either the particular subject matter of the contract or the intended use of the data may require the use of other prescribed clauses, or may not require the use of any prescribed clause, as discussed in 27.405 and 27.408. Also, in selecting a data rights clause, it is important to note that any such clause does not specify the data (in terms of type, quantity or quality) that is to be delivered, but only the respective rights of the Government and the contractor to use, disclose, or reproduce such data. Accordingly, the contract should also include appropriate terms to specify the data to be delivered.

27.404 Basic Rights in Data Clause.

(a) Unlimited Rights Data. Under the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, the Government acquires unlimited rights in the following data (except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section for copyrighted data): (1) data first produced in the performance of a contract (except to the extent such data constitute minor modifications to data that are limited rights data or restricted computer software); (2) form, fit, and function data delivered under contract; (3) data (except as may be included with restricted computer software) that constitute manuals or instructional and training material for installation, operation, or routine maintenance and repair of items, components, or processes delivered or furnished for use under a contract; and (4) all other data delivered under the contract other than limited rights data or restricted computer software (see paragraph (b) of this section). If any of the foregoing data are published copyrighted data with the notice of 17 U.S.C. 401 or 402, the Government acquires them under a copyright license, as set forth in paragraph (f) of this section, rather than with unlimited rights.
(b) Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software. The clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, enables the contractor to protect qualifying limited rights data and restricted computer software by withholding such data from delivery to the Government and delivering form, fit, and function data in lieu thereof. However, when an agency has a need to obtain delivery of limited rights data or restricted computer software, the clause may be used with its Alternates II or III, as set forth in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section. These alternatives enable a contracting officer to selectively request the delivery of such data with limited rights or restricted rights, either by specifying such delivery in the contract or by specific request.
(c) Alternate Definition of Limited Rights Data. In the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, in order for data to qualify as limited rights data, in addition to being data that either embody a trade secret or are data that are commercial or financial and confidential or privileged, such data must also pertain to items, components, or processes developed at private expense, including minor modifications thereof. However, for contracts that do not require the development, use or delivery of items, components or processes that are intended to be acquired by or for the Government, an agency may adopt for general use or for use in specific circumstances the alternate definition of limited rights data set forth in Alternate I. The alternate definition does not require that such data pertain to items, components, or processes developed at private expense; but rather that such data were developed at private expense and embody a trade secret or are commercial or financial and confidential or privileged.
(d) Protection of Limited Rights Data Specified for Delivery.
(1) Contracting officers are authorized to modify the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, by use of Alternate II, which Alternate adds paragraph (g)(2) to the clause to enable the Government to require delivery of limited rights data rather than allowing the contractor to withhold such data. To obtain such delivery, the contract may identify and specify data to be delivered, or the contracting officer may require, by written request during contract performance, the delivery of data that has been withheld or identified as withholdable under paragraph (g)(1) of the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General. In addition, if agreed to during negotiations, the contract may specifically identify data that are not to be delivered under Alternate II or which, if delivered, will be delivered with limited rights. The limited rights obtained by the Government are set forth in the Limited Rights Notice contained in paragraph (g)(2) (Alternate II). Such limited rights data will not, without permission of the contractor, be used by the Government for purposes of manufacture, and will not be disclosed outside the Government except for certain specific purposes as may be set forth in the Notice, and then only if the Government makes the disclosure subject to prohibition against further use and disclosure by the recipient. The following are examples of specific purposes which may be adopted by an agency in its supplement and added to the Limited Rights Notice of paragraph (g)(2) of the clause (Alternate II):
(i) Use (except for manufacture) by support service contractors.
(ii) Evaluation by nongovernment evaluators.
(iii) Use (except for manufacture) by other contractors participating in the Government's program of which the specific contract is a part, for information and use in connection with the work performed under each contract.
(iv) Emergency repair or overhaul work.
(v) Release to a foreign government, or instrumentality thereof, as the interests of the United States Government may require, for information or evaluation, or for emergency repair or overhaul work by such government.
(2) As an aid in determining whether the clause at 52.227-14 should be used with its Alternate II, the provision at 52.227-15, Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software, may be included in any solicitation containing the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General. This provision requests that an offeror state in response to a solicitation, to the extent feasible, whether limited rights data are likely to be used in meeting the data delivery requirements set forth in the solicitation. In addition, the need for Alternate II should be considered during negotiations or discussion with an offeror, particularly where negotiations are based on an unsolicited proposal. However, use of the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, without Alternate II does not preclude this Alternate from being used subsequently by modification during contract performance, should the need arise for delivery of limited rights data that have been withheld or identified as withholdable.
(3) Whenever data that would qualify as limited rights data, if it were to be delivered in human readable form, is formatted as a computer data base for the purpose of delivery under a contract containing the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, such data is to be treated as limited rights data, rather than restricted computer software, for the purposes of paragraph (g) of that clause.
(e) Protection of Restricted Computer Software Specified for Delivery.
(1) Contracting officers are authorized to modify the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, by use of Alternate III, which Alternate adds paragraph (g)(3) to the clause to enable the Government to require delivery of restricted computer software rather than allowing the contractor to withhold such restricted computer software. To obtain such delivery, the contract may identify and specify the computer software to be delivered, or the contracting officer may require by written request during contract performance, the delivery of computer software that has been withheld or identified as withholdable under paragraph (g)(1) of the clause. In addition, if agreed to during negotiations, the contract may specifically identify computer software that are not to be delivered under Alternate III or which, if delivered, will be with restricted rights. In considering whether to use the clause at 52.227-14 with its Alternate III, it should be particularly noted that unlike other data, computer software is also an end item in itself, such that if withheld and form, fit, and function data provided in lieu thereof, an operational program will not be acquired. Thus, if delivery of restricted computer software is anticipated to be needed to meet contract performance requirements, the contracting officer should assure that the clause is used with its Alternate III. Unless otherwise agreed to (see paragraph (e)(2) of this section) the restricted rights obtained by the Government are set forth in the Restricted Rights Notice contained in paragraph (g)(3) (Alternate III). Such restricted computer software will not be used or reproduced by the Government, or disclosed outside the Government, except that the computer software may be-
(i) Used or copied for use in or with the computer or computers for which it was acquired, including use at any Government installation to which such computer or computers may be transferred;
(ii) Used or copied for use in or with a backup computer if any computer for which it was acquired becomes inoperative;
(iii) Reproduced for safekeeping (archives) or backup purposes;
(iv) Modified, adapted, or combined with other computer software, provided that the modified, combined, or adapted portions of any derivative software incorporating restricted computer software are made subject to the same restricted rights;
(v) Disclosed to and reproduced for use by support service contractors, subject to the same restriction under which the Government acquired the software;
(vi) Used or copied for use in or transferred to a replacement computer; and
(vii) Used in accordance with subdivisions (e)(1)(i) through (v) of this section, without disclosure prohibitions, if the computer software is published copyrighted computer software.
(2) The restricted rights set forth in paragraph (e)(1) of this section are the minimum rights the Government normally obtains with restricted computer software and will automatically apply when such software is acquired under the Restricted Rights Notice of paragraph (g)(3) (Alternate III) of the clause. However, either greater or lesser rights, consistent with the purposes and needs for which the software is to be acquired, may be specified by the contracting officer in a particular contract or prescribed in agency regulations. For example, consideration should be given to any networking needs or any requirements for use of the computer software from remote terminals. Also, in addressing such needs, the scope of the restricted rights may be different for the documentation accompanying the computer software than for the programs and data bases. Any additions to, or limitations on, the restricted rights set forth in the Restricted Rights Notice of paragraph (g)(3) of the clause are to be expressly stated in the contract or in a collateral agreement incorporated in and made part of the contract, and the notice modified accordingly.
(3) As an aid in determining whether the clause should be used with its Alternate III, the provision at 52.227-15, Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software, may be included in any solicitation containing the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General. This provision requests that an offeror state, in response to a solicitation, to the extent feasible, whether restricted computer software is likely to be used in meeting the data delivery requirements set forth in the solicitation. In addition, the need for Alternate III should be considered during negotiations or discussions with an offeror, particularly where negotiations are based on an unsolicited proposal. However, use of the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, without Alternate III does not preclude this Alternate from being used subsequently by modification during contract performance, should the need arise for the delivery of restricted computer software that has been withheld or identified as withholdable.
(f) Copyrighted Data-
(1) Data First Produced in the Performance of a Contract.
(i) In order to enhance the transfer or dissemination of information produced at Government expense, contractors are normally authorized, without prior approval of the contracting officer, to establish claim to copyright subsisting in technical or scientific articles based on or containing data first produced in the performance of work under a contract containing the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General and published in academic, technical or professional journals, symposia proceedings and similar works. Otherwise, the permission of the contracting officer is required in accordance with subdivision (f)(1)(ii) of this section or any applicable agency regulations, to establish claim to copyright subsisting in data first produced in the performance of a contract unless the clause is used with its Alternate IV in accordance with subdivision (f)(1)(iii) of this section. Agencies may, however, restrict copyright under certain circumstances in accordance with paragraph (g)(3) of this section.
(ii) Usually, permission for a contractor to establish claim to copyright subsisting in data first produced under the contract will be granted when copyright protection will enhance the appropriate transfer or dissemination of such data and the commercialization of products or processes to which it pertains. The request for permission must be made in writing, and may be made either prior to contract award or subsequently during contract performance. It should identify the data involved or furnish copies of the data for which permission is requested, as well as a statement as to the intended publication or dissemination media or other purpose for which copyright is desired. The request normally will be granted unless-
(A) The data consist of a report that represents the official views of the agency or that the agency is required by statute to prepare;
(B) The data are intended primarily for internal use by the Government;
(C) The data are of the type that the agency itself distributes to the public under an agency program;
(D) The Government determines that limitation on distribution of the data is in the national interest; or
(E) The Government determines that the data should be disseminated without restriction.
(iii) An Alternate IV is provided for use with the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, which Alternate provides a substitute paragraph (c)(1) in the clause granting blanket permission for contractors to establish claim to copyright subsisting in all data first produced in the performance of the contract without further request being made by the contractor. Alternate IV shall be used in all contracts for basic or applied research (other than those for management or operation of Government facilities and in contracts and subcontracts in support of programs being conducted at such facilities or where international agreements require otherwise) to be performed solely by colleges and universities. Alternate IV will not be used in contracts with colleges and universities if a purpose of the contract is for development of computer software for distribution to the public (including use in solicitations) by or on behalf of the Government. In addition, Alternate IV may be used in other contracts if an agency determines to grant blanket permission for contractors to establish claim to copyright subsisting in all data first produced in the performance of contract without further request being made by the contractor. In any contract where Alternate IV is used, the contract may exclude any data, items or categories of data from the blanket permission granted, either by express provisions in the contract or by the addition of a paragraph (d)(3) to the clause, consistent with paragraph (g)(3) of this section.
(iv) Whenever a contractor establishes claim to copyright subsisting in data (other than computer software) first produced in the performance of a contract, the Government is granted a paid-up nonexclusive, irrevocable, worldwide license to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute to the public, perform publicly and display publicly by or on behalf of the Government, for all such data, as set forth in paragraph (c)(1) of the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General. For computer software the scope of the Government's license does not include the right to distribute to the public. Agencies may also, either on a case-by-case basis, or on a class basis if provided in implementing regulations, obtain a license of different scope than set forth in paragraph (c)(1) of the clause if the agency determines that such different license will substantially enhance the transfer or dissemination of any data first produced under the contract, and will not interfere with the Government's use of the data as contemplated by the contract or if required for international agreements. If an agency obtains such a different license, the scope of that license shall be clearly stated in a conspicuous place on the medium on which the data is recorded. That is, if a report, the scope of the different license shall be put on the cover, or first page, of the report. If computer software, the scope of the different license shall be placed on the most conspicuous place available.
(v) Whenever a contractor establishes claim to copyright in data first produced in the performance of a contract, irrespective of which Alternate is used with the clause or the scope of the Government's license, the contractor is required to affix the applicable copyright notices of 17 U.S.C. 401 or 402, and acknowledgment of Government sponsorship, (including the contract number) to the data whenever such data are delivered to the Government, published, or deposited for registration as a published work in the U.S. Copyright Office. Failure to do so could result in such data being treated as unlimited rights data (see paragraph (i) of this section).
(2) Data Not First Produced in the Performance of a Contract.
(i) Contractors are not to incorporate in data delivered under a contract any data that is not first produced under the contract and that is marked with the copyright notice of 17 U.S.C 401 or 402, without either (A) acquiring for or granting to the Government certain copyright license rights for the data, or (B) obtaining permission from the contracting officer to do otherwise. The copyright license the Government acquires for such data will normally be of the same scope as discussed in subdivision (f)(1)(iv) of this section, and is set forth in paragraph (c)(2) of the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General. However, agencies may, on a case-by-case basis, or on a class basis if provided in implementing agency regulations, obtain a license of different scope if the agency determines that such different license will not be inconsistent with the purpose of acquiring the data. If a license of a different scope is acquired, it must be so stated in the contract and clearly set forth in a conspicuous place on the data when delivered to the Government. In addition, if computer software not first produced under a contract is delivered with the copyright notice of 17 U.S.C. 401, the Government's license will be as set forth in paragraph (g)(3) (Alternate III) if included in the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, or as otherwise may be provided in a collateral agreement incorporated in or made part of the contract.
(ii) Contractors delivering data with both an authorized limited rights or restricted rights notice and the copyright notice of 17 U.S.C. 401 or 402 should modify the copyright notice to include the following (or similar) statement: "Unpublished-all rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States." If this statement is omitted, the contractor may be afforded an opportunity to correct it in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section. Otherwise, data delivered with a copyright notice of 17 U.S.C. 401 or 402 may be presumed to be published copyrighted data subject to the applicable license rights set forth in subdivision (f)(2)(i) of this section, without disclosure limitations or restrictions.
(iii) If contractor action causes limited rights or restricted rights data to be published with the copyright notice of 17 U.S.C. 401 or 402 after its delivery to the Government, the Government is relieved of disclosure and use limitations and restrictions regarding such data, and the contractor should advise the Government, request that a copyright notice be placed on the copies of the data delivered to the Government and acknowledge that the applicable copyright license set forth in subdivision (f)(2)(i) of this section applies.
(g) Release, Publication, and Use of Data.
(1) In paragraph (d) of the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, paragraph (d)(1) recognizes the fact that normally the contractor has the right to use, release to others, reproduce, distribute, or publish data first produced in the performance of a contract, except to the extent such data may be subject to Federal export control or to national security laws or regulations. In addition, to the extent the contractor receives or is given access to data that is necessary for the performance of the contract from or by the Government or others acting on behalf of the Government, and the data contains restrictive markings, paragraph (d)(2) provides an agreement with the contractor to treat the data in accordance with the markings, unless otherwise specifically authorized by the contracting officer.
(2) In contracts for basic or applied research with universities or colleges, no restrictions may be placed upon the conduct of or reporting on the results of unclassified basic or applied research, except as provided in applicable U.S. Statutes. For the purposes of this paragraph, agency restrictions on the release or disclosure of computer software that has been, readily can be, or is intended to be, developed to the point of practical application (including for agency distribution under established programs) are not considered restrictions on the reporting of the results of basic or applied research. Agencies may also restrict claim to copyright in any computer software for purposes of established agency distribution programs, or where required to accomplish the purpose for which the software is produced.
(3) Except for the results of basic or applied research under contracts with universities or colleges, agencies may, to the extent provided in their FAR supplements, place limitations or restrictions on the contractor's right to use, release to others, reproduce, distribute, or publish any data first produced in the performance of the contract, including a requirement to assign copyright to the Government or another party, either by adding a paragraph (d)(3) to the Rights in Data-General clause at 52.227-14, or by express limitations or restrictions in the contract. In the latter case, the limitations or restrictions should be referenced in the Rights in Data-General clause. However, such regulatory restrictions or limitations are not to be imposed unless they are determined by the agency to be necessary in the furtherance of agency mission objectives, needed to support specific agency programs, or necessary to meet statutory requirements. Notwithstanding the provisions of this paragraph, agencies may obtain, if provided in their FAR supplement, for information purposes only, advance copies of articles intended for publication in academic, scientific or technical journals or symposia proceedings or similar works.
(h) Unauthorized Marking of Data. Except for validation of restrictive markings on technical data under contracts for major systems, or for support of major systems, by agencies subject to the provisions of Title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, the Government has, in accordance with paragraph (e) of the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, the right to either return to the contractor data containing markings not authorized by that clause, or to cancel or ignore such markings. However, markings will not be canceled or ignored without making written inquiry of the contractor and affording the contractor at least 30 days to provide a written justification to substantiate the propriety of the markings. Failure of the contractor to respond, or failure to provide a written justification to substantiate the propriety of the markings within the time afforded, may result in the Government's action to cancel or ignore the markings. If the contractor provides a written justification to substantiate the propriety of the markings, it will be considered by the contracting officer and the contractor notified of any determination based thereon. If the contracting officer determines that the markings are authorized, the contractor will be so notified in writing. Further, if the contracting officer determines, with concurrence of the head of the contracting activity, that the markings are not authorized, the contractor will be furnished a written determination which shall become the final agency decision regarding the appropriateness of the markings and the markings will be cancelled or ignored and the data will no longer be made subject to disclosure prohibitions, unless the contractor files suit within 90 days in a court of competent jurisdiction. In any event, the markings will not be cancelled or ignored unless the contractor fails to respond within the period provided, or, if the contractor does respond, until final resolution of the matter, either by the contracting officer's determination becoming the final agency decision or by final disposition of the matter by court decision if suit is filed. The foregoing procedures may be modified in accordance with agency regulations implementing the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552) if necessary to respond to a request thereunder. In addition, the contractor is not precluded from bringing a claim under the Contract Disputes Act, including pursuant to the Disputes clause of this contract if applicable, that may arise as the result of the Government's action to remove or ignore any markings on data, unless such action occurs as the result of a final disposition of the matter by a court of competent jurisdiction.
(i) Omitted or Incorrect Notices.
(1) Data delivered under a contract containing the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, without a limited rights notice or restricted rights notice, and without a copyright notice, will be presumed to have been delivered with unlimited rights, and the Government assumes no liability for the disclosure, use, or reproduction of such data. However, to the extent the data has not been disclosed without restriction outside the Government, the contractor may within 6 months (or a longer period approved by the contracting officer for good cause shown) request permission of the contracting officer to have omitted limited rights or restricted rights notices, as applicable, placed on qualifying data at the contractor's expense, and the contracting officer may agree to so permit if the contractor-
(i) Identifies the data for which a notice is to be added or corrected;
(ii) Demonstrates that the omission of the proposed notice was inadvertent;
(iii) Establishes that use of the proposed notice is authorized; and
(iv) Acknowledges that the Government has no liability with respect to any disclosure or use of any such data made prior to the addition of the notice or resulting from the omission of the notice.
(2) The contracting officer may also-
(i) Permit correction, at the contractor's expense, of incorrect notices if the contractor identifies the data on which correction of the notice is to be made, and demonstrates that the correct notice is authorized; or
(ii) Correct any incorrect notices.
(j) Inspection of Data at the Contractor's Facility. Contracting officers may obtain the right to inspect data at the contractor's facility by use of Alternate V, which adds paragraph (j) to provide that right in the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General. Agencies may also adopt Alternate V for general use. The data subject to inspection may be data withheld or withholdable under paragraph (g)(1) of the clause. Such inspection may be made by the contracting officer or designee (including nongovernmental personnel under the same conditions as the contracting officer) for the purpose of verifying a contractor's assertion regarding the limited rights or restricted rights status of the data, or for evaluating work performance under the contract. This right may be exercised up to 3 years after acceptance of all items to be delivered under the contract. The contract may specify data items that are not subject to inspection under paragraph (j) (Alternate V). If the contractor demonstrates to the contracting officer that there would be a possible conflict of interest if inspection were made by a particular representative, the contracting officer shall designate an alternate representative.

27.405 Other data rights provisions.

(a) Production of special works.
(1) The clause at 52.227-17, Rights in Data-Special Works, is to be used in contracts (or may be made applicable to portions thereof) that are primarily for the production or compilation of data (other than limited rights data or restricted computer software) for the Government's own use, or when there is a specific need to limit distribution and use of the data and/or to obtain indemnity for liabilities that may arise out of the content, performance, or disclosure of the data. Examples are contracts for-
(i) The production of audiovisual works, including motion pictures or television recordings with or without accompanying sound, or for the preparation of motion picture scripts, musical compositions, sound tracks, translation, adaptation, and the like;
(ii) Histories of the respective agencies, departments, services, or units thereof;
(iii) Surveys of Government establishments;
(iv) Works pertaining to the instruction or guidance of Government officers and employees in the discharge of their official duties;
(v) The compilation of reports, books, studies, surveys, or similar documents that do not involve research, development, or experimental work;
(vi) The collection of data containing personally identifiable information such that the disclosure thereof would violate the right of privacy or publicity of the individual to whom the information relates;
(vii) Investigatory reports;
(viii) The development, accumulation, or compilation of data (other than that resulting from research, development, or experimental work performed by the contractor), the early release of which could prejudice follow-on acquisition activities or agency regulatory or enforcement activities; or
(ix) The development of computer software programs, where the program-
(A) May give a commercial advantage; or
(B) Is agency mission sensitive, and release could prejudice agency mission, programs, or follow-on acquisitions.
(2) The contract may specify the purposes and conditions (including time limitations) under which the data may be used, released, or reproduced other than for contract performance. Contracts for the production of audiovisual works, sound recordings, etc., may include limitations in connection with talent releases, music licenses, and the like that are consistent with the purposes for which the works are acquired.
(3) Subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the clause at 52.227-17, Rights in Data-Special Works, which enables the Government to obtain assignment of copyright in any data first produced in the performance of the contract, may be deleted if the contracting officer determines that such assignment is not needed to further the objectives of the contract.
(4) Paragraph (e) of the clause, which requires the contractor to indemnify the Government against any liability incurred as the result of any violation of trade secrets, copyrights, right of privacy or publicity, or any libelous or other unlawful matter arising out of or contained in any production or compilation of data that are subject to the clause, may be deleted or limited in scope where the contracting officer determines that, because of the nature of the particular data involved, such liability will not arise.
(5) When the audiovisual or other special works are produced to accomplish a public purpose other than acquisition for the Government's own use (such as for production and distribution to the public of such works by other than a Federal agency) agencies are authorized to modify the Rights in Data-Special Works clause for use in such contracts, with rights in data provisions which meet agency mission needs yet protect free speech and freedom of expression, as well as the artistic license of the creator of the work.
(b) Rights relating to existing data other than limited rights data.
(1) Acquisition of existing audiovisual and similar works. The clause at 52.227-18, Rights in Data-Existing Works, is for use in contracts exclusively for the acquisition (without modification) of existing motion pictures, television recordings, and other audiovisual works; sound recordings; musical, dramatic, and literary works; pantomimes and choreographic works; pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works; and works of a similar nature. The contract may set forth limitations consistent with the purposes for which the works covered by the contract are being acquired. Examples of these limitations are (i) means of exhibition or transmission, (ii) time, (iii) type of audience, and (iv) geographical location. If the contract requires that works of the type indicated in paragraph (b)(1) of this section are to be modified through editing, translation, or addition of subject matter, etc. (rather than purchased in existing form) the clause at 52.227-17, Rights in Data-Special Works, is to be used. (See paragraph (a) of this section.)
(2) Acquisition of existing computer software.
(i) When contracting other than from GSA's Multiple Award Schedule contracts for the acquisition of existing computer software (i.e., privately developed software normally vended commercially under a license or lease agreement restricting its use, disclosure, or reproduction), no specific contract clause prescribed in this subpart need be used, but the contract (or purchase order) must specifically address the Government's rights to use, disclose and reproduce the software, which rights must be sufficient for the Government to fulfill the need for which the software is being acquired. Such rights may be negotiated and set forth in the contract using the guidance concerning restricted rights as set forth in 27.404(e), or the clause at 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights, may be used. Restricted computer software acquired under GSA Multiple Award Schedule contracts and orders are excluded from this requirement. The guidance concerning rights set forth in 27.404(e), as well as those in the clause at 52.227-19, are the minimum rights the Government usually should accept. Thus if greater rights than these minimum rights are needed, or lesser rights are to be acquired, they must be negotiated and set forth in the contract (or purchase order). This includes any additions to, or limitations on, the rights set forth in paragraph (b) of the clause at 52.227-19 when used. Examples of greater rights may be those necessary for networking purposes or use of the software from remote terminals communicating with a host computer where the software is located. If the computer software is to be acquired with unlimited rights, the contract must also so state. In addition, the contract must adequately describe the computer programs and/or data bases, the form (tapes, punch cards, disk pack, and the like), and all the necessary documentation pertaining thereto. If the acquisition is by lease or license, the disposition of the computer software (by returning to the vendor or destroying) at the end of the term of the lease or license must be addressed.
(ii) If the contract incorporates, makes reference to, or uses a vendor's standard commercial lease, license, or purchase agreement, such agreement shall be reviewed to assure that it is consistent with subdivision (b)(2)(i) of this section. Caution should be exercised in accepting a vendor's terms and conditions, since they may be directed to commercial sales and may not be appropriate for Government contracts. Any inconsistencies in a vendor's standard commercial agreement shall be addressed in the contract and the contract terms shall take precedence over the vendor's standard commercial agreement. If the clause at 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights, is used, inconsistencies in the vendor's standard commercial agreement regarding the Government's right to use, duplicate or disclose the computer software are reconciled by that clause.
(iii) If a prime contractor under a contract containing the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, with paragraph (g)(3) (Alternate III) in the clause, acquires restricted computer software from a subcontractor (at any tier) as a separate acquisition for delivery to or for use on behalf of the Government, the contracting officer may approve any additions to, or limitations on the restricted rights in the Restricted Rights Notice of paragraph (g)(3) in a collateral agreement incorporated in and made part of the contract.
(3) Other existing data and works. Except for existing audiovisual and similar works pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and existing computer software pursuant to paragraph (b)(2) of this section, no clause contained in this subpart is required to be included in (i) contracts solely for the acquisition of books, periodicals, and other printed items in the exact form in which such items are to be obtained unless reproduction rights are to be acquired; or (ii) other contracts (e.g., contracts resulting from sealed bidding) that require only existing data (other than limited rights data) to be delivered and such data are available without disclosure prohibitions, unless reproduction rights to the data are to be obtained. If the reproduction rights to the data are to be obtained in any contract of the type described in subdivision (b)(3)(i) or (ii) of this section, such rights must be specifically set forth in the contract. No clause contained in this subpart is required to be included in contracts substantially for on-line data base services in the same form as they are normally available to the general public.
(c) Contracts awarded under Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. The clause at 52.227-20, Rights in Data-SBIR Program, is for use in all Phase I and Phase II contracts awarded under the Small Business Innovative Research Program (SBIR) established pursuant to Pub. L. 97-219 (the Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982). The clause is limited to use solely in contracts awarded under the SBIR Program, and is the only data rights clause to be used in such contracts.

27.406 Acquisition of data.

(a) General.
(1) It is the Government's practice to determine, to the extent feasible, its data requirements in time for inclusion in solicitations. The data requirements may be subject to revision during contract negotiations. Since the preparation, reformatting, maintenance and updating, cataloging, and storage of data represents an expense to both the Government and the contractor, efforts should be made to keep the contract data requirements to a minimum, consistent with the purposes of the contract.
(2) To the extent feasible, all known data requirements, including the time and place for delivery and any limitations and restrictions to be imposed on the contractor in the handling of the data, shall be specified in the contract. Further, and to the extent feasible, in major system acquisitions, data requirements shall be set out as separate contract line items. In establishing the contract data requirements and in specifying data items to be delivered by a contractor, agencies may, consistent with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, develop their own contract schedule provisions in agency procedures (including data requirements lists) for listing, specifying, identifying source, assuring delivery, and handling any data required to be delivered, first produced, or specifically used in the performance of the contract.
(3) Data delivery requirements should normally not require that a contractor provide the Government, as a condition of the procurement, unlimited rights in data that qualify as limited rights data or restricted computer software. Rather, form, fit, and function data may be furnished with unlimited rights in lieu of the qualifying data, or the qualifying data may be furnished with limited rights or restricted rights if needed (see 27.404(d) and (e)). If greater rights are needed such need should be clearly set forth in the solicitation and the contractor fairly compensated for such greater rights.
(b) Additional data requirements.
(1) Recognizing that in some contracting situations, such as experimental, developmental, research, or demonstration contracts, it may not be feasible to ascertain all the data requirements at the time of contracting, the clause at 52.227-16, Additional Data Requirements, may be used to enable the subsequent ordering by the contracting officer of additional data first produced or specifically used in the performance of such contracts as the actual requirements become known. The clause shall normally be used in solicitations and contracts involving experimental, developmental, research or demonstration work (other than basic or applied research to be performed under a contract solely by a university or college when the contract amount will be $500,000 or less) unless all the requirements for data are believed to be known at the time of contracting and specified in the contract. If the contract is for basic or applied research to be performed by a university or college, and the contracting officer believes the contract effort will in the future exceed $500,000, even though the initial award does not, the contracting officer may include the clause in the initial award.
(2) Data may be ordered under the clause at 52.227-16, Additional Data Requirements, at any time during contract performance or within a period of 3 years after acceptance of all items to be delivered under the contract. The contractor is to be compensated for converting the data into the prescribed form, for reproduction, and for delivery. In order to minimize storage costs for the retention of data, the contractor may be relieved of retention requirements for specified data items by the contracting officer at any time during the retention period required by the clause. The contracting officer may permit the contractor to identify and specify in the contract data not to be ordered for delivery under the Additional Data Requirements clause if such data is not necessary to meet the Government's requirements for data. Also, the contracting officer may alter the Additional Data Requirements clause by deleting the term "or specifically used" in paragraph (a) thereof if delivery of such data is not necessary to meet the Government's requirements for data. Any data ordered under this clause will be subject to the Rights in Data-General clause (or other equivalent clause setting forth the respective rights of the Government and the contractor) in the contract, and data authorized to be withheld under such clause will not be required to be delivered under the Additional Data Requirements clause, except as provided in Alternate II or Alternate III, if included in the clause (see 27.404(d) and (e)).
(3) Agencies not having an established program for dissemination of computer software shall give consideration to not ordering additional computer software under the clause at 52.227-16, Additional Data Requirements, for the sole purpose of disseminating or marketing of the software to the public especially if this will provide the contractor additional incentive to make improvements to the software at its own expense and disseminate or market it. This should not preclude an agency from including a summary description of computer software available from a contractor in any data dissemination programs which it operates, with a statement as to how the potential user can obtain it through the contractor, licensee, or assignee. In cases where the contracting officer orders software for internal purposes, consideration shall be given, consistent with the Government's needs, to not ordering particular source codes, algorithms, processes, formulae or flow charts of the software if the contractor shows that this aids its efforts to disseminate or market the software.
(c) Acceptance of data. As required by 41 U.S.C. 418a (d)(7), acceptability of technical data delivered under a contract shall be in accordance with the appropriate contract clause as required by Subpart 46.3, and the clause at 52.22721, Technical Data Declaration, Revision, and Withholding of Payment-Major Systems, when it is included in the contract. (See paragraph (d) of this section.)
(d) Major System Acquisition.
(1) In order to assure that technical data needed to support a major system acquisition are timely delivered and are complete, accurate, and satisfy the requirements of the contract concerning the data, the clause at 52.227-21, Technical Data Declaration, Revision, and Withholding of Payment-Major Systems, is to be included in contracts for or in support of a major system (as the term "major system" is defined in Section 4 of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy Act, as amended by Pub. L. 98-577), including every detailed design, development, or production contract for a major system acquisition and contracts for any individual part, component, subassembly, assembly, or subsystem integral to the major system, and other property which may be replaced during the service life of the system, and including spare parts and replenishment spare parts.
(2) The clause at 52.227-21, Technical Data, Declaration, Revision, and Withholding of Payment-Major Systems, requires the contractor, upon delivery of any technical data made subject to the clause in the contract, to declare that to the best of its knowledge and belief, such data are complete, accurate, and comply with contract requirements. It also provides for corrections of any deficiencies in the data, as well as for the ability of the contracting officer to request revisions of the data to reflect engineering design changes made during performance of the contract and affecting form, fit, and function of the items the data depict. Further included is the authority for the contracting officer to withhold payment under the contract to assure timely delivery of the technical data and/or assure correction if the technical data are not complete, accurate, and in compliance with contract requirements.
(3) When the clause at 52.227-21, Technical Data, Declaration, Revision and Withholding of Payment-Major Systems, is used, the section of the contract specifying data delivery requirements (see paragraph (a)(2) of this section) shall expressly identify those line items of technical data to which the clause applies. Upon delivery of such technical data, the contracting officer or designee shall review the technical data and the contractor's declaration relating thereto to assure that the data are complete, accurate, and comply with contract requirements. If not, the contractor is to be requested to correct the deficiencies, and payment may be withheld until such is done. Final payment should not be made under the contract until it has been determined that the delivery requirements of those line items of data to which the clause applies have been satisfactorily met.
(4) In a contract for or in support of a major system awarded by a civilian agency other than NASA or the U.S. Coast Guard the contracting officer shall include contractual provisions requiring, as an element of performance under the contract, the delivery of any technical data, other than computer software, relating to the major system or supplies for the major system procured or to be procured by the Government, which are to be developed exclusively with Federal funds in the performance of the contract if the delivery of such technical data is needed to ensure the competitive acquisition of supplies or services that will be required in substantial quantities in the future. The clause at 52.227-22, Major System-Minimum Rights, is to be included in such contracts in addition to the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, and other required clauses, to ensure that the Government acquires at least those rights required by Pub. L. 98-577 in technical data developed exclusively with Federal funds. In any contract to which this paragraph (d)(4) applies, technical data, other than computer software, relating to a major system or supplies for a major system, procured or to be procured by the Government and also relating to the design, development, or manufacture of products or processes offered or to be offered for sale to the public (except for such data as may be necessary for the Government to operate or maintain the product, or use the process if obtained by the United States as an element of performance under the contract), shall not be required to be provided to the Government from persons who have developed such products or processes as a condition for the procurement of such products or processes by the Government.

27.407 Rights to technical data in successful proposals.

(a) Contracting officers may, in consideration of contract award, desire to acquire unlimited rights in technical data (but not commercial or financial information) contained in a successful proposal upon which a contract award is based. However, before such unlimited rights are acquired, the prospective contractor must be afforded the opportunity either-
(1) To advise the contracting officer that the technical data, or portions thereof (to be identified by the prospective contractor), are covered by any restrictive notice regarding the disclosure and use of proposal information authorized by Subpart 15.2 or 15.6 (or any agency supplement thereto), and request that such protection be maintained by excluding the data from the Government's rights; or
(2) To establish to the contracting officer's satisfaction that identified portions of the technical data do not relate directly to or will not be utilized in the work to be performed under the contract, and request that such portions be excluded from the Government's rights.
(b) If unlimited rights to technical data in successful proposals, as set forth in paragraph (a) of this section, are to be acquired, it shall be by use of the clause at 52.227-23, Rights to Proposal Data (Technical). Any excluded technical data will be identified by inserting appropriate proposal page numbers in the clause, which clause enables the identification of data to be excluded from the Government's rights, as discussed in paragraph (a) of this section. Such exclusion is not dispositive of the protective status of the data, but any excluded technical data, as well as any commercial and financial information contained in the proposal, will remain subject to the policies in Subpart 15.2 or 15.6 (or agency supplements thereto) relating to proposal information (i.e., will be used for evaluation purposes only). If the clause at 52.227-23, Rights to Proposal Data (Technical), is included in a contract, the prospective con-tractor must be specifically afforded the opportunity to exclude technical data as set forth in paragraph (a) of this section, and the contract file must reflect that fact. If there is a need to have access to any of the excluded technical data during contract performance, consideration should be given to their acquisition as limited rights data, if they so qualify, in accordance with 27.404(d).

27.408 Cosponsored research and development activities.

(a) In contracts involving cosponsored research and development wherein the contractor is required to make substantial contributions of funds or resources (i.e., by cost-sharing or by repayment of nonrecurring costs), and the contractor's and the Government's respective contributions to any item, component, process, or computer software, developed or produced under the contract are not readily segregable, the contracting officer may limit the acquisition of or acquire less than unlimited rights to any data developed and delivered under such contract. Agencies may regulate the use of this authority in their supplements. Basically such rights should, at a minimum, assure use of the data for agreed-to Governmental purposes (including reprocurement rights as appropriate), and will address any disclosure limitations or restrictions to be imposed on the data. Also, consideration may be given to directed licensing provisions if needed to carry out the objectives of the contract. Since the purpose of the cosponsored research and development, the legitimate proprietary interests of the contractor, the needs of the Government, and the respective contributions of both parties may vary, no specific clauses are prescribed, but a clause providing less than unlimited rights in the Government for data developed and delivered under the contract (such as license rights) may be tailored to the circumstances consistent with the foregoing and the policy set forth in 27.402. As a guide, such clause may be appropriate when the contractor contributes money or resources, or agrees to make repayment of nonrecurring costs, of a value of approximately 50 percent of the total cost of the contract (i.e., Government, contractor, and/or third party paid costs), and the respective contributions are not readily segregable for any work element to be performed under the contract. Such clause may be used for all or for only specifically identified tasks or work elements under the contract. In the latter instance, its use will be in addition to whatever other data rights clause is prescribed under this subpart, with the contract specifically identifying which clause is to apply to which tasks or work elements. Further, such clause may not be appropriate where the purpose of the contract is to produce data for dissemination to the public, or to develop or demonstrate technologies which will be available, in any event, to the public for their direct use.
(b) Where the contractor's contributions are readily segregable (by performance requirements and the funding therefor) and so identified in the contract, any data resulting therefrom may be treated under such clause as limited rights data or restricted computer software in accordance with 27.404(d) or (e), as applicable; or if such treatment is inconsistent with the purpose of the contract, rights to such data may, if so negotiated and stated in the contract, be treated in a manner consistent with paragraph (a) of this section.

27.409 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

(a)(1) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, including its use with Alternate I through Alternate V as may be required or authorized in accordance with paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, in solicitations and contracts if it is contemplated that data will be produced, furnished, or acquired under the contract, unless the contract is-
(i) For the production of special works of the type set forth in 27.405(a), but the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, shall be included in the contract and made applicable to data other than special works, as appropriate;
(ii) For the acquisition of existing data works, as described in 27.405(b);
(iii) To be performed outside the United States, its possessions, and Puerto Rico, in which case agencies may prescribe different clauses (see paragraph (n) of this section);
(iv) For architect-engineer services or construction work, in which case agencies may utilize the clause at 52.227-17, Rights in Data-Special Works, or may prescribe different clauses;
(v) A Small Business Innovation Research contract (see paragraph (l) of this section);
(vi) For the management, operation, design, or construction of a Government-owned facility to perform research, development, or production work, in which case agencies may prescribe different clauses (see paragraph (p) of this section); or
(vii) A contract involving cosponsored research and development in which a clause providing for less than unlimited right has been authorized. (See 27.408.)
(2) Paragraph (e)(3) of the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, may be deleted or reserved by an agency not subject to Title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act.
(b) If an agency determines, in accordance with 27.404(c), to adopt the alternate definition of "Limited Rights Data" in paragraph (a) of the clause, the clause shall be used with its Alternate I.
(c) In accordance with 27.404(d), if a contracting officer determines it is necessary to obtain the delivery of limited rights data, the clause shall be used with its Alternate II. The contracting officer shall, when Alternate II is used, assure that the purposes, if any, for which limited rights data are to be disclosed outside the Government are included in the "Limited Rights Notice" of paragraph (g)(2) of the clause.
(d) In accordance with 27.404(e), if a contracting officer determines it is necessary to obtain the delivery of restricted computer software, the clause shall be used with its Alternate III. Any greater or lesser rights regarding the use, duplication, or disclosure of restricted computer software than those set forth in the Restricted Rights Notice of paragraph (g)(3) of the clause must be specified in the contract and the notice modified accordingly.
(e) The clause shall be used with its Alternate IV in contracts for basic or applied research (other than those for the management or operation of Government facilities or where international agreements require otherwise), to be performed solely by universities and colleges. The clause may be used with its Alternate IV in other contracts if in accordance with 27.404(f)(1) an agency determines to grant blanket permission for the contractor to establish claim to copyright subsisting in all data first produced without further request being made by the contractor. When Alternate IV is used, the contract may exclude items or categories of data from the blanket permission granted, either by express provisions in the contract or by the addition of a paragraph (d)(3) to the clause (see 27.404(g)(1)).
(f) In accordance with 27.404(i), if a contracting officer needs to have the right to inspect certain data at a contractor's facility or if by an agency, generally the clause shall be used with its Alternate V.
(g) In accordance with 27.404(d)(2), if the contracting officer desires to have an offeror state in response to a solicitation, to the extent feasible, whether limited rights data or restricted computer software are likely to be used in meeting the data delivery requirements set forth in the solicitation, the contracting officer shall insert the provision at 52.22715, Representation of Limited Rights Data and Restricted Computer Software, in any solicitation containing the clause at 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General. The contractor's response will provide an aid in determining whether the clause should be used with Alternate II and/or Alternate III.
(h) The contracting officer shall normally insert the clause at 52.227-16, Additional Data Requirements, in solicitations and contracts involving experimental, developmental, research, or demonstration work (other than basic or applied research to be performed solely by a university or college where the contract amount will be $500,000 or less) unless all the requirements for data are believed to be known at the time of contracting and specified in the contract. (See 27.406(b).) This clause may also be used in other contracts when considered appropriate.
(i) In accordance with 27.405(a), the contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.227-17, Rights in Data-Special Works, in solicitations and contracts primarily for the production or compilation of data (other than limited rights data or restricted computer software) for the Government's internal use, or when there is a specific need to limit distribution and use of the data and/or to obtain indemnity for liabilities that may arise out of the content, performance, or disclosure of the data. Examples of such contracts are set forth in 27.405(a). The contract may specify the purposes and conditions (including time limitations) under which the data may be used, released or reproduced by the contractor for other than contract performance. Contracts for the production of audiovisual works, sound recordings, etc. may include limitations in connection with talent releases, music licenses, and the like that are consistent with the purposes for which the data is acquired.
(j) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.227-18, Rights in Data-Existing Works, in solicitations and contracts exclusively for the acquisition, without modification, of existing audiovisual and similar works of the type set forth in 27.405(b)(1). The contract may set forth limitations consistent with the purposes for which the work is being acquired. The clause at 52.227-17, Rights in Data-Special Works, shall be used if existing works are to be modified, as by editing, translation, addition of subject matter, etc.
(k) In accordance with 27.405(b)(2), when contracting (other than from GSA's Multiple Award Schedule contracts) for the acquisition of existing computer software, the clause at 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights, may be used in the solicitation and contract. In any event, the contracting officer shall assure that the contract contains terms to obtain sufficient rights for the Government to fulfill the need for which the software is being acquired and is otherwise consistent with 27.405(b)(2).
(l) If the contract is a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the clause at 52.227-20, Rights in Data-SBIR Program shall be used in all Phase I and Phase II contracts awarded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program established pursuant to Pub. L. 97-219 (The Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982).
(m) While no specific clause of this subpart is required to be included in contracts solely for the acquisition, without disclosure prohibitions, of books, publications and similar items in the exact form in which such items exist prior to the request for purchase (i.e., the off-the-shelf purchase of such items), or in other contracts (e.g., contracts resulting from sealed bidding) where only existing data available without disclosure prohibitions is to be furnished, if reproduction rights are to be acquired the contract shall include terms addressing such rights. (See 27.405(b)(3).)
(n) Agencies may prescribe in their procedures, as appropriate, a clause consistent with the policy of 27.402 in contracts to be performed outside the United States, its possessions, and Puerto Rico.
(o) Agencies may prescribe in their procedures the clause at 52.227-17, Rights in Data-Special Works, or prescribe, as appropriate, clauses consistent with the policy in 27.402 in contracts for architect-engineer services and construction work.
(p) Agencies may prescribe in their procedures, as appropriate, a clause consistent with the policy of 27.402 in contracts for management, operation, design, or construction of Government-owned research, development, or production facilities, and in contracts and subcontracts in support of programs being conducted at such facilities.
(q) In accordance with 27.406(d), the contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.227-21, Technical Data Declaration, Revision, and Withholding of Payment-Major Systems, in contracts for major systems acquisitions or for support of major systems acquisitions. When used, this clause requires that the technical data to which it applies be specified in the contract. (See 27.406(d).)
(r) In the case of civilian agencies except NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard, the contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.227-22, Major System-Minimum Rights, in contracts for major systems or contracts in support of major systems.
(s) In accordance with 27.407, if a contracting officer desires to acquire unlimited rights in technical data contained in a successful proposal upon which a contract award is based, the contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.227-23, Rights to Proposed Data (Technical). Rights to technical data in a proposal are not acquired by mere incorporation by reference of the proposal in the contract, and if a proposal is incorporated by reference, Section 27.404 must be followed to assure that such rights are appropriately addressed.

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