22.000 Scope of part.

This part—

(a) Prescribes general policies regarding contractor labor relations as they pertain to the acquisition process;

(b) Prescribes contracting policy and procedures to implement each pertinent labor law and Executive order; and

(c) Prescribes contract clauses with respect to each pertinent labor law and Executive order.

22.001 Definitions.

“Administrator” or “Administrator, Wage and Hour Division,” as used in this part, means the—

Wage and Hour Division
Employment Standards Administration
U.S. Department of Labor
Washington, DC 20210

or an authorized representative.

“Agency labor advisor” means an individual responsible for advising contracting agency officials on Federal contract labor matters.

“e98” means the Department of Labor’s approved electronic application (, whereby a contracting officer submits pertinent information to the Department of Labor and requests a Service Contract Labor Standards statute wage determination directly from the Wage and Hour Division.

“Service contract” means any Government contract, or subcontract thereunder, the principal purpose of which is to furnish services in the United States through the use of service employees, except as exempted by 41 U.S.C. chapter 67, Service Contract Labor Standards; see 22.1003-3 and 22.1003-4). See 22.1003-5 and 29 CFR 4.130 for a partial list of services covered by the Service Contract Labor Standards statute.

“Service employee” means any person engaged in the performance of a service contract other than any person employed in a bona fide executive, administrative, or professional capacity, as those terms are defined in 29 CFR part 541. The term “service employee” includes all such persons regardless of any contractual relationship that may be alleged to exist between a contractor or subcontractor and such persons.

“Wage Determinations OnLine (WDOL)” means the Government Internet website for both Construction Wage Rate Requirements statute and Service Contract Labor Standards statute wage determinations available at

Subpart 22.1—Basic Labor Policies

22.101 Labor relations.

22.101-1 General.

(a) Agencies shall maintain sound relations with industry and labor to ensure (1) prompt receipt of information involving labor relations that may adversely affect the Government acquisition process and (2) that the Government obtains needed supplies and services without delay. All matters regarding labor relations shall be handled in accordance with agency procedures.

(b)(1) Agencies shall remain impartial concerning any dispute between labor and contractor management and not undertake the conciliation, mediation, or arbitration of a labor dispute. To the extent practicable, agencies should ensure that the parties to the dispute use all available methods for resolving the dispute, including the services of the National Labor Relations Board, Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, the National Mediation Board and other appropriate Federal, State, local, or private agencies.

(2) For use of project labor agreements, see subpart 22.5.

(c) Agencies should, when practicable, exchange information concerning labor matters with other affected agencies to ensure a uniform Government approach concerning a particular plant or labor-management dispute.

(d) Agencies should take other actions concerning labor relations problems to the extent consistent with their acquisition responsibilities. For example, agencies should—

(1) Notify the agency responsible for conciliation, mediation, arbitration, or other related action of the existence of any labor dispute affecting or threatening to affect agency acquisition programs;

(2) Furnish to the parties to a dispute factual information pertinent to the dispute’s potential or actual adverse impact on these programs, to the extent consistent with security regulations; and

(3) Seek a voluntary agreement between management and labor, notwithstanding the continuance of the dispute, to permit uninterrupted acquisition of supplies and services. This shall only be done, however, if the attempt to obtain voluntary agreement does not involve the agency in the merits of the dispute and only after consultation with the agency responsible for conciliation, mediation, arbitration, or other related action.

(e) The head of the contracting activity may designate programs or requirements for which it is necessary that contractors be required to notify the Government of actual or potential labor disputes that are delaying or threaten to delay the timely contract performance (see 22.103-5(a)).

22.101-2 Contract pricing and administration.

(a) Contractor labor policies and compensation practices, whether or not included in labor-management agreements, are not acceptable bases for allowing costs in cost-reimbursement contracts or for recognition of costs in pricing fixed-price contracts if they result in unreasonable costs to the Government. For a discussion of allowable costs resulting from labor-management agreements, see 31.205-6(b).

(b) Labor disputes may cause work stoppages that delay the performance of Government contracts. Contracting officers shall impress upon contractors that each contractor shall be held accountable for reasonably avoidable delays. Standard contract clauses dealing with default, excusable delays, etc., do not relieve contractors or subcontractors from the responsibility for delays that are within the contractors’ or their subcontractors’ control. A delay caused by a strike that the contractor or subcontractor could not reasonably prevent can be excused; however, it cannot be excused beyond the point at which a reasonably diligent contractor or subcontractor could have acted to end the strike by actions such as—

(1) Filing a charge with the National Labor Relations Board to permit the Board to seek injunctive relief in court;

(2) Using other available Government procedures; and

(3) Using private boards or organizations to settle disputes.

(c) Strikes normally result in changing patterns of cost incurrence and therefore may have an impact on the allowability of costs for cost-reimbursement contracts or for recognition of costs in pricing fixed-price contracts. Certain costs may increase because of strikes; e.g., guard services and attorney’s fees. Other costs incurred during a strike may not fluctuate (e.g., “fixed costs” such as rent and depreciation), but because of reduced production, their proportion of the unit cost of items produced increases. All costs incurred during strikes shall be carefully examined to ensure recognition of only those costs necessary for performing the contract in accordance with the Government’s essential interest.

(d) If, during a labor dispute, the inspectors’ safety is not endangered, the normal functions of inspection at the plant of a Government contractor shall be continued without regard to the existence of a labor dispute, strike, or picket line.

22.101-3 Reporting labor disputes.

The office administering the contract shall report, in accordance with agency procedures, any potential or actual labor disputes that may interfere with performing any contracts under its cognizance. If a contract contains the clause at 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes, the contractor also must report any actual or potential dispute that may delay contract performance.

22.101-4 Removal of items from contractors’ facilities affected by work stoppages.

(a) Items shall be removed from contractors’ facilities affected by work stoppages in accordance with agency procedures. Agency procedures should allow for the following:

(1) Determine whether removal of items is in the Government’s interest. Normally the determining factor is the critical needs of an agency program.

(2) Attempt to arrange with the contractor and the union representative involved their approval of the shipment of urgently required items.

(3) Obtain appropriate approvals from within the agency.

(4) Determine who will remove the items from the plant(s) involved.

(b) Avoid the use or appearance of force and prevent incidents that might detrimentally affect labor-management relations.

(c) When two or more agencies’ requirements are or may become involved in the removal of items, the contract administration office shall ensure that the necessary coordination is accomplished.

22.102 Federal and State labor requirements.

22.102-1 Policy.

Agencies shall cooperate, and encourage contractors to cooperate with Federal and State agencies responsible for enforcing labor requirements such as—

(a) Safety;

(b) Health and sanitation;

(c) Maximum hours and minimum wages;

(d) Equal employment opportunity;

(e) Child and convict labor;

(f) Age discrimination;

(g) Disabled and Vietnam veteran employment;

(h) Employment of workers with disabilities; and

(i) Eligibility for employment under United States immigration laws.

22.102-2 Administration and enforcement.

(a) Agencies shall cooperate with, and encourage contractors to use to the fullest extent practicable, the DOL Employment and Training Administration (DOLETA) at, and its affiliated local offices in meeting contractors' labor requirements. These requirements may be to staff new or expanding plant facilities, including requirements for workers in all occupations and skills from local labor market areas or through the Federal-State employment clearance system.

(b) Local State employment offices are operated throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In addition to providing recruitment assistance to contractors, cooperation with the local State Employment Service offices will further the national program of maintaining continuous assessment of manpower requirements and resources on a national and local basis.

(c)(1) The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) is responsible for the administration and enforcement of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. DOL’s Wage and Hour Division is responsible for administration and enforcement of numerous wage and hour statutes including—

(i) 40 U.S.C. chapter 31, subchapter IV, Wage Rate Requirements (Construction) (see subpart 22.4);

(ii) 40 U.S.C. chapter 37, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards (see subpart 22.3);

(iii) The Copeland Act (18 U.S.C. 874 and 40 U.S.C. 3145) (see 22.403-2);

(iv) 41 U.S.C. chapter 65, Contracts for Materials, Supplies, Articles, and Equipment Exceeding $15,000 (see subpart 22.6); and

(v) 41 U.S.C. chapter 67, Service Contract Labor Standards (see subpart 22.10).

(2) Contracting officers should contact the Wage and Hour Division’s regional offices when required by the subparts relating to these statutes unless otherwise specified. Addresses for these offices may be found at 29 CFR 1, Appendix B.

(3) DOL’s administration and enforcement authorities under the statutes and under the Executive orders implemented in this part do not limit the authority of contracting officers to administer and enforce the terms and conditions of agency contracts. However, DOL has regulatory authority to require contracting agencies to change contract terms to include missing contract clauses or wage determinations that are required by the FAR, or to withhold contract amounts (see, e.g., 22.1015, 22.1022).

Note to paragraph (c)(3): By a court order issued on October 24, 2016, this paragraph (c)(3) is enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the order. The enjoined paragraph will become effective immediately if the court terminates the injunction. At that time, GSA, DoD and NASA will publish a document in the Federal Register advising the public of the termination of the injunction.

22.103 Overtime.

22.103-1 Definition.

“Normal workweek,” as used in this subpart, means, generally, a workweek of 40 hours. Outside the United States and its outlying areas, a workweek longer than 40 hours is considered normal if—

(1) The workweek does not exceed the norm for the area, as determined by local custom, tradition, or law; and

(2) The hours worked in excess of 40 in the workweek are not compensated at a premium rate of pay.

22.103-2 Policy.

Contractors shall perform all contracts, so far as practicable, without using overtime, particularly as a regular employment practice, except when lower overall costs to the Government will result or when it is necessary to meet urgent program needs. Any approved overtime, extra-pay shifts, and multishifts should be scheduled to achieve these objectives.

22.103-3 Procedures.

(a) Solicitations normally shall not specify delivery or performance schedules that may require overtime at Government expense.

(b) In negotiating contracts, contracting officers should, consistent with the Government’s needs, attempt to—

(1) Ascertain the extent that offers are based on the payment of overtime and shift premiums; and

(2) Negotiate contract prices or estimated costs without these premiums or obtain the requirement from other sources.

(c) When it becomes apparent during negotiations of applicable contracts (see 22.103-5(b)) that overtime will be required in contract performance, the contracting officer shall secure from the contractor a request for all overtime to be used during the life of the contract, to the extent that the overtime can be estimated with reasonable certainty. The contractor’s request shall contain the information required by paragraph (b) of the clause at 52.222-2, Payment for Overtime Premiums.

22.103-4 Approvals.

(a) The contracting officer shall review the contractor’s request for overtime. Approval of the use of overtime may be granted by an agency approving official after determining in writing that overtime is necessary to—

(1) Meet essential delivery or performance schedules;

(2) Make up for delays beyond the control and without the fault or negligence of the contractor; or

(3) Eliminate foreseeable extended production bottlenecks that cannot be eliminated in any other way.

(b) Approval by the designated official of use and total dollar amount of overtime is required before inclusion of an amount in paragraph (a) of the clause at 52.222-2, Payment for Overtime Premiums.

(c) Contracting officer approval of payment of overtime premiums is required for time-and-materials and labor-hour contracts (see paragraph (a)(8) of the clause at 52.232-7, Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts).

(d) No approvals are required for paying overtime premiums under other types of contracts.

(e) Approvals by the agency approving official (see 22.103-4(a)) may be for an individual contract, project, program, plant, division, or company, as practical.

(f) During contract performance, contractor requests for overtime exceeding the amount authorized by paragraph (a) of the clause at 52.222-2, Payment for Overtime Premiums, shall be submitted as stated in paragraph (b) of the clause to the office administering the contract. That office will review the request and if it approves, send the request to the contracting officer. If the contracting officer determines that the requested overtime should be approved in whole or in part, the contracting officer shall request the approval of the agency’s designated approving official and modify paragraph (a) of the clause to reflect any approval.

(g) Overtime premiums at Government expense should not be approved when the contractor is already obligated, without the right to additional compensation, to meet the required delivery date.

(h) When the use of overtime is authorized under a contract, the office administering the contract and the auditor should periodically review the use of overtime to ensure that it is allowable in accordance with the criteria in part 31. Only overtime premiums for work in those departments, sections, etc., of the contractor’s plant that have been individually evaluated and the necessity for overtime confirmed shall be considered for approval.

(i) Approvals for using overtime shall ordinarily be prospective, but, if justified by emergency circumstances, approvals may be retroactive.

22.103-5 Contract clauses.

(a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes, in solicitations and contracts that involve programs or requirements that have been designated under 22.101-1(e).

(b) The contracting officer shall include the clause at 52.222-2, Payment for Overtime Premiums, in solicitations and contracts when a cost-reimbursement contract is contemplated and the contract amount is expected to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold; unless—

(1) A cost-reimbursement contract for operation of vessels is contemplated; or

(2) A cost-plus- incentive-fee contract that will provide a swing from the target fee of at least plus or minus 3 percent and a contractor’s share of at least 10 percent is contemplated.

22.104 Agency labor advisors.

(a) Appointment of agency labor advisors. Agencies may designate or appoint labor advisors, according to agency procedures.

(b) Duties. Agency labor advisors are generally responsible for the following duties:

(1) Interfacing with DOL, agency labor compliance advisors (ALCAs) (as defined at 22.2002), outside agencies, contractors, and other parties in matters concerning interpretation, guidance, and enforcement of labor statutes, Executive orders, and implementing regulations applicable to agency contracts.

Note to paragraph (b)(1): By a court order issued on October 24, 2016, the words “agency labor compliance advisors (ALCAs) (as defined at 22.2002)” in this paragraph (b)(1) are enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the order. The enjoined words will become effective immediately if the court terminates the injunction. At that time, GSA, DoD and NASA will publish a document in the Federal Register advising the public of the termination of the injunction.

(2) Providing advice and guidance to the contracting agency regarding application of labor statutes, Executive orders, and implementing regulations in agency contracts.

(3) Serving as labor subject matter experts on all issues specific to part 22 and its prescribed contract clauses and provisions.

(c) Agency labor advisors are listed at

(d) For information about ALCAs, who provide support regarding Executive Order 13673, Fair Pay and Safe Workplaces, see subpart 22.20.

Note to paragraph (d): By a court order issued on October 24, 2016, this paragraph (d) is enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the order. The enjoined paragraph will become effective immediately if the court terminates the injunction. At that time, GSA, DoD and NASA will publish a document in the Federal Register advising the public of the termination of the injunction.