Part 32 - Contract Financing
32.000 Scope of part.
This part prescribes policies and procedures for contract financing and other payment matters. This part addresses-
(a) Payment methods, including partial payments and progress payments based on percentage or stage of completion;
(b) Loan guarantees, advance payments, and progress payments based on costs;
(c) Administration of debts to the Government arising out of contracts;
(d) Contract funding, including the use of contract clauses limiting costs or funds;
(e) Assignment of claims to aid in private financing;
(f) Selected payment clauses;
(g) Financing of purchases of commercial products and commercial services;
(h) Performance-based payments; and
(i) Electronic funds transfer payments.
As used in this part—
Commercial interim payment means any payment that is not a commercial advance payment or a delivery payment. These payments are contract financing payments for prompt payment purposes (i.e., not subject to the interest penalty provisions of the Prompt Payment Act in accordance with subpart 32.9). A commercial interim payment is given to the contractor after some work has been done, whereas a commercial advance payment is given to the contractor when no work has been done.
Contract action means an action resulting in a contract, as defined in subpart 2.1, including actions for additional supplies or services outside the existing contract scope, but not including actions that are within the scope and under the terms of the existing contract, such as contract modifications issued pursuant to the Changes clause, or funding and other administrative changes.
Contract financing payment means an authorized Government disbursement of monies to a contractor prior to acceptance of supplies or services by the Government.
(1) Contract financing payments include-
(i) Advance payments;
(ii) Performance-based payments;
(iii) Commercial advance and interim payments;
(iv) Progress payments based on cost under the clause at 52.232-16, Progress Payments;
(v) Progress payments based on a percentage or stage of completion (see 32.102(e)), except those made under the clause at 52.232-5, Payments Under Fixed-Price Construction Contracts, or the clause at 52.232-10, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts; and
(vi) Interim payments under a cost reimbursement contract, except for a cost reimbursement contract for services when Alternate I of the clause at 52.232-25, Prompt Payment, is used.
(2) Contract financing payments do not include-
(i) Invoice payments;
(ii) Payments for partial deliveries; or
(iii) Lease and rental payments.
Customary contract financing means that financing deemed by an agency to be available for routine use by contracting officers. Most customary contract financing arrangements should be usable by contracting officers without specific reviews or approvals by higher management.
Delivery payment means a payment for accepted supplies or services, including payments for accepted partial deliveries. Commercial financing payments are liquidated by deduction from these payments. Delivery payments are invoice payments for prompt payment purposes.
Designated billing office means the office or person (governmental or nongovernmental) designated in the contract where the contractor first submits invoices and contract financing requests. The contract might designate different offices to receive invoices and contract financing requests. The designated billing office might be-
(1) The Government disbursing office;
(2) The contract administration office;
(3) The office accepting the supplies delivered or services performed by the contractor;
(4) The contract audit office; or
(5) A nongovernmental agent.
Designated payment office means the office designated in the contract to make invoice payments or contract financing payments. Normally, this will be the Government disbursing office.
Due date means the date on which payment should be made.
Invoice payment means a Government disbursement of monies to a contractor under a contract or other authorization for supplies or services accepted by the Government.
Invoice payments include-
Payments for partial deliveries that have been accepted by the Government;
Final cost or fee payments where amounts owed have been settled between the Government and the contractor;
For purposes of subpart 32.9 only, all payments made under the clause at 52.232-5, Payments Under Fixed-Price Construction Contracts, and the clause at 52.232-10, Payments Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts; and
Interim payments under a cost-reimbursement contract for services when Alternate I of the clause at 52.232-25, Prompt Payment, is used
Invoice payments do not include contract financing payments.
Liquidate means to decrease a payment for an accepted supply item or service under a contract for the purpose of recouping financing payments previously paid to the contractor.
Unusual contract financing means any financing not deemed customary contract financing by the agency. Unusual contract financing is financing that is legal and proper under applicable laws, but that the agency has not authorized contracting officers to use without specific reviews or approvals by higher management.
32.002 Applicability of subparts.
(a) The following sections and subparts of this part are applicable to all purchases subject to part 32:
(2) subpart 32.3, Loan Guarantees for Defense Production.
(3) subpart 32.6, Contract Debts.
(4) subpart 32.7, Contract Funding.
(5) subpart 32.8, Assignment of Claims.
(6) subpart 32.9, Prompt Payment.
(7) subpart 32.11, Electronic Funds Transfer.
(c) The following subparts of this part are applicable to all purchases made under any authority other than part 12:
(1) subpart 32.1, Financing for Other Than a Commercial Purchase.
(2) subpart 32.4, Advance Payments for Other Than Commercial Acquisitions.
(3) subpart 32.5, Progress Payments Based on Costs.
(4) subpart 32.10, Performance-Based Payments.
32.003 Simplified acquisition procedures financing.
Unless agency regulations otherwise permit, contract financing shall not be provided for purchases made under the authority of part 13.
32.004 Contract performance in foreign countries.
The enforceability of contract provisions for security of Government financing in a foreign jurisdiction is dependent upon local law and procedure. Prior to providing contract financing where foreign jurisdictions may become involved, the contracting officer shall ensure the Government’s security is enforceable. This may require the provision of additional or different security than that normally provided for in the standard contract clauses.
32.005 Consideration for contract financing.
(a) Requirement. When a contract financing clause is included at the inception of a contract, there shall be no separate consideration for the contract financing clause. The value of the contract financing to the contractor is expected to be reflected in either (1)a bid or negotiated price that will be lower than such price would have been in the absence of the contract financing, or (2) contract terms and conditions, other than price, that are more beneficial to the Government than they would have been in the absence of the contract financing. Adequate new consideration is required for changes to, or the addition of, contract financing after award.
(b) Amount of new consideration. The contractor may provide new consideration by monetary or nonmonetary means, provided the value is adequate. The fair and reasonable consideration should approximate the amount by which the price would have been less had the contract financing terms been contained in the initial contract. In the absence of definite information on this point, the contracting officer should apply the following criteria in evaluating whether the proposed new consideration is adequate:
(1) The value to the contractor of the anticipated amount and duration of the contract financing at the imputed financial costs of the equivalent working capital.
(2) The estimated profit rate to be earned through contract performance.
(c) Interest. Except as provided in subpart 32.4, Advance Payments for Other Than Commercial Acquisitions, the contract shall not provide for any other type of specific charges, such as interest, for contract financing.
32.006 Reduction or suspension of contract payments upon finding of fraud.
(a) Under 10 U.S.C. 3806(j), the statutory authority implemented by this section is available to the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; this statutory authority is not available to the United States Coast Guard. Under 41 U.S.C. 4506, this statutory authority is available to all agencies subject to Division C of subtitle I of title 41.
(b) 10 U.S.C. 3806(c) and 41 U.S.C. 4506 provide for a reduction or suspension of further payments to a contractor when the agency head determines there is substantial evidence that the contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payments is based on fraud. This authority does not apply to commercial interim payments under subpart 32.2, or performance-based payments under subpart 32.10.
(c) The agency head may not delegate his or her responsibilities under these statutes below Level IV of the Executive Schedule.
(d) Authority to reduce or suspend payments under these statutes is in addition to other Government rights, remedies, and procedures.
(e) In accordance with these statutes, agency head determinations and decisions under this section may be made for an individual contract or any group of contracts affected by the fraud.
Remedy coordination official, as used in this section, means the person or entity in the agency who coordinates within that agency the administration of criminal, civil, administrative, and contractual remedies resulting from investigations of fraud or corruption related to procurement activities. (See 10 U.S.C. 3806(a) and 41 U.S.C.4506(a).)
(a) Agencies shall establish appropriate procedures to implement the policies and procedures of this section.
(b) Government personnel shall report suspected fraud related to advance, partial, or progress payments in accordance with agency regulations.
(a) In any case in which an agency’s remedy coordination official finds substantial evidence that a contractor’s request for advance, partial, or progress payments under a contract awarded by that agency is based on fraud, the remedy coordination official shall recommend that the agency head reduce or suspend further payments to the contractor. The remedy coordination official shall submit to the agency head a written report setting forth the remedy coordination official’s findings that support each recommendation.
(b) Upon receiving a recommendation from the remedy coordination official under paragraph (a) of this subsection, the agency head shall determine whether substantial evidence exists that the request for payment under a contract is based on fraud.
(c) If the agency head determines that substantial evidence exists, the agency head may reduce or suspend further payments to the contractor under the affected contract(s). Such reduction or suspension shall be reasonably commensurate with the anticipated loss to the Government resulting from the fraud.
(d) In determining whether to reduce or suspend further payment(s), as a minimum, the agency head shall consider-
(1) A recommendation from investigating officers that disclosure of the allegations of fraud to the contractor may compromise an ongoing investigation;
(2) The anticipated loss to the Government as a result of the fraud;
(3) The contractor’s overall financial condition and ability to continue performance if payments are reduced or suspended;
(4) The contractor’s essentiality to the national defense, or to the execution of the agency’s official business; and
(5) Assessment of all documentation concerning the alleged fraud, including documentation submitted by the contractor in its response to the notice required by paragraph (e) of this subsection.
(e) Before making a decision to reduce or suspend further payments, the agency head shall, in accordance with agency procedures-
(1) Notify the contractor in writing of the action proposed by the remedy coordination official and the reasons therefor (such notice must be sufficiently specific to permit the contractor to collect and present evidence addressing the aforesaid reasons); and
(2) Provide the contractor an opportunity to submit information within a reasonable time, in response to the action proposed by the remedy coordination official.
(f) When more than one agency has contracts affected by the fraud, the agencies shall consider designating one agency as the lead agency for making the determination and decision.
(g) The agency shall retain in its files the written justification for each-
(1) Decision of the agency head whether to reduce or suspend further payments; and
(2) Recommendation received by an agency head in connection with such decision.
(h) Not later than 180 calendar days after the date of the reduction or suspension action, the remedy coordination official shall-
(1) Review the agency head’s determination on which the reduction or suspension decision is based; and
(2) Transmit a recommendation to the agency head as to whether the reduction or suspension should continue.
(a) In accordance with 41 U.S.C.4506(h), the head of an agency, other than the Department of Defense, shall prepare a report for each fiscal year in which a recommendation has been received pursuant to 32.006-4(a). Reports within the Department of Defense shall be prepared in accordance with 10 U.S.C. 3806(h).
(1) Each recommendation made by the remedy coordination official;
(2) The actions taken on the recommendation(s), with reasons for such actions; and
(3) An assessment of the effects of each action on the Government.
32.007 Contract financing payments.
(1) Unless otherwise prescribed in agency policies and procedures or otherwise specified in paragraph (b) of this section, the due date for making contract financing payments by the designated payment office is the 30 thday after the designated billing office receives a proper contract financing request.
(2) If an audit or other review of a specific financing request is required to ensure compliance with the terms and conditions of the contract, the designated payment office is not compelled to make payment by the specified due date.
(3) Agency heads may prescribe shorter periods for payment based on contract pricing or administrative considerations. For example, a shorter period may be justified by an agency if the nature and extent of contract financing arrangements are integrated with agency contract pricing policies.
(4) Agency heads must not prescribe a period shorter than 7 days or longer than 30 days.
(b) For advance payments, loans, or other arrangements that do not involve recurrent submission of contract financing requests, the designated payment office will make payment in accordance with the applicable contract financing terms or as directed by the contracting officer.
(c) A proper contract financing request must comply with the terms and conditions specified by the contract. The contractor must correct any defects in requests submitted in the manner specified in the contract or as directed by the contracting officer.
(d) The designated billing office and designated payment office must annotate each contract financing request with the date their respective offices received the request.
(e) The Government will not pay an interest penalty to the contractor as a result of delayed contract financing payments.
32.008 Notification of overpayment.
If the contractor notifies the contracting officer of a duplicate payment or that the Government has otherwise overpaid, the contracting officer shall follow the procedures at 32.604.
32.009 Providing accelerated payments to small business subcontractors.
Pursuant to the policy provided by OMB Memorandum M-12-16, Providing Prompt Payment to Small Business Subcontractors (and as extended by OMB Memorandum M-13-15 and M-14-10, both titled, Extension of Policy to Provide Accelerated Payment to Small Business Subcontractors), agencies shall take measures to ensure that prime contractors pay small business subcontractors on an accelerated timetable to the maximum extent practicable, and upon receipt of accelerated payments from the Government. This acceleration does not provide any new rights under the Prompt Payment Act and does not affect the application of the Prompt Payment Act late payment interest provisions.
32.009-2 Contract clause.
Insert clause 52.232-40, Providing Accelerated Payments to Small Business Subcontractors, in all solicitations and contracts.
Subpart 32.1 - Financing for Other Than a Commercial Purchase
32.100 Scope of subpart.
This subpart provides policies and procedures applicable to contract financing and payment for any purchases other than purchases of commercial products or commercial services in accordance with part 12.
32.102 Description of contract financing methods.
(a) Advance payments are advances of money by the Government to a prime contractor before, in anticipation of, and for the purpose of complete performance under one or more contracts. They are expected to be liquidated from payments due to the contractor incident to performance of the contracts. Since they are not measured by performance, they differ from partial, progress, or other payments based on the performance or partial performance of a contract. Advance payments may be made to prime contractors for the purpose of making advances to subcontractors.
(b) Progress payments based on costs are made on the basis of costs incurred by the contractor as work progresses under the contract. This form of contract financing does not include-
(1) Payments based on the percentage or stage of completion accomplished;
(2) Payments for partial deliveries accepted by the Government;
(3) Partial payments for a contract termination proposal; or
(4) Performance-based payments.
(c) Loan guarantees are made by Federal Reserve banks, on behalf of designated guaranteeing agencies, to enable contractors to obtain financing from private sources under contracts for the acquisition of supplies or services for the national defense.
(d) Payments for accepted supplies and services that are only a part of the contract requirements (i.e., partial deliveries) are authorized under 41 U.S.C. chapter 45 and 10 U.S.C. chapter 277. In accordance with 5 CFR 1315.4(k), agencies must pay for partial delivery of supplies or partial performance of services unless specifically prohibited by the contract. Although payments for partial deliveries generally are treated as a method of payment and not as a method of contract financing, using partial delivery payments can assist contractors to participate in contracts without, or with minimal, contract financing. When appropriate, contract statements of work and pricing arrangements must permit acceptance and payment for discrete portions of the work, as soon as accepted (see 32.906(c)).
(1) Progress payments based on a percentage or stage of completion are authorized by the statutes cited in 32.101.
(2) This type of progress payment may be used as a payment method under agency procedures. Agency procedures must ensure that payments are commensurate with work accomplished, which meets the quality standards established under the contract. Furthermore, progress payments may not exceed 80 percent of the eligible costs of work accomplished on undefinitized contract actions.
(f) Performance-based payments are contract financing payments made on the basis of-
(1) Performance measured by objective, quantifiable methods;
(2) Accomplishment of defined events; or
(3) Other quantifiable measures of results.
32.103 Progress payments under construction contracts.
When satisfactory progress has not been achieved by a contractor during any period for which a progress payment is to be made, a percentage of the progress payment may be retained. Retainage should not be used as a substitute for good contract management, and the contracting officer should not withhold funds without cause. Determinations to retain and the specific amount to be withheld shall be made by the contracting officers on a case-by-case basis. Such decisions will be based on the contracting officer’s assessment of past performance and the likelihood that such performance will continue. The amount of retainage withheld shall not exceed 10 percent of the approved estimated amount in accordance with the terms of the contract and may be adjusted as the contract approaches completion to recognize better than expected performance, the ability to rely on alternative safeguards, and other factors. Upon completion of all contract requirements, retained amounts shall be paid promptly.
32.104 Providing contract financing.
(a) Prudent contract financing can be a useful working tool in Government acquisition by expediting the performance of essential contracts. Contracting officers must consider the criteria in this part in determining whether to include contract financing in solicitations and contracts. Resolve reasonable doubts by including contract financing in the solicitation. The contracting officer must-
(1) Provide Government financing only to the extent actually needed for prompt and efficient performance, considering the availability of private financing and the probable impact on working capital of the predelivery expenditures and production lead-times associated with the contract, or groups of contracts or orders (e.g., issued under indefinite-delivery contracts, basic ordering agreements, or their equivalent);
(2) Administer contract financing so as to aid, not impede, the acquisition;
(3) Avoid any undue risk of monetary loss to the Government through the financing;
(5) Monitor the contractor’s use of the contract financing provided and the contractor’s financial status.
(b) If the contractor is a small business concern, the contracting officer must give special attention to meeting the contractor’s contract financing need. However, a contractor’s receipt of a certificate of competency from the Small Business Administration has no bearing on the contractor’s need for or entitlement to contract financing.
(c) Subject to specific agency regulations and paragraph (d) of this section, the contracting officer-
(1) May provide customary contract financing in accordance with 32.113; and
(2) Must not provide unusual contract financing except as authorized in 32.114.
(d) Unless otherwise authorized by agency procedures, the contracting officer may provide contract financing in the form of performance-based payments (see subpart 32.10) or customary progress payments (see subpart 32.5) if the following conditions are met:
(1) The contractor-
(i) Will not be able to bill for the first delivery of products for a substantial time after work must begin (normally 4 months or more for small business concerns, and 6 months or more for others), and will make expenditures for contract performance during the predelivery period that have a significant impact on the contractor’s working capital; or
(ii) Demonstrates actual financial need or the unavailability of private financing.
(2) If the contractor is not a small business concern-
(i) For an individual contract, the contract price is $3 million or more; or
(ii) For an indefinite-delivery contract, a basic ordering agreement or a similar ordering instrument, the contracting officer expects the aggregate value of orders or contracts that individually exceed the simplified acquisition threshold to have a total value of $3 million or more. The contracting officer must limit financing to those orders or contracts that exceed the simplified acquisition threshold.
(3) If the contractor is a small business concern-
(i) For an individual contract, the contract price exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold; or
(ii) For an indefinite-delivery contract, a basic ordering agreement or a similar ordering instrument, the contracting officer expects the aggregate value of orders or contracts to exceed the simplified acquisition threshold.
32.105 Uses of contract financing.
(a) Contract financing methods covered in this part are intended to be self-liquidating through contract performance. Consequently, agencies shall only use the methods for financing of contractor working capital, not for the expansion of contractor-owned facilities or the acquisition of fixed assets. However, under loan guarantees, exceptions may be made for-
(1) Facilities expansion of a minor or incidental nature, if a relatively small part of the guaranteed loan is used for the expansion and the contractor’s repayment would not be delayed or impaired; or
(2) Other instances of facilities expansion for which contract financing is appropriate under agency procedures.
(b) The limitations in this section do not apply to contracts under which facilities are being acquired for Government ownership.
32.106 Order of preference.
The contracting officer must consider the following order of preference when a contractor requests contract financing, unless an exception would be in the Government’s best interest in a specific case:
(a) Private financing without Government guarantee. It is not intended, however, that the contracting officer require the contractor to obtain private financing-
(1) At unreasonable terms; or
(2) From other agencies.
(b) Customary contract financing other than loan guarantees and certain advance payments (see 32.113).
(c) Loan guarantees.
(d) Unusual contract financing (see 32.114).
(e) Advance payments (see exceptions in 32.402(b)).
32.107 Need for contract financing not a deterrent.
(a) If the contractor or offeror meets the standards prescribed for responsible prospective contractors at 9.104, the contracting officer shall not treat the contractor’s need for contract financing as a handicap for a contract award; e.g., as a responsibility factor or evaluation criterion.
(b) The contractor should not be disqualified from contract financing solely because the contractor failed to indicate a need for contract financing before the contract was awarded.
32.108 Financial consultation.
Each contracting office should have available and use the services of contract financing personnel competent to evaluate credit and financial problems. In resolving any questions concerning-
(a) The financial capability of an offeror or contractor to perform a contract, or
(b) What form of contract financing is appropriate in a given case, the contracting officer should consult the appropriate contract financing office.
32.109 Termination financing.
To encourage contractors to invest their own funds in performance despite the susceptibility of the contract to termination for the convenience of the Government, the contract financing procedures under this part may be applied to the financing of terminations either in connection with or independently of financing for contract performance (see 49.112-1).
32.110 Payment of subcontractors under cost-reimbursement prime contracts.
If the contractor makes financing payments to a subcontractor under a cost-reimbursement prime contract, the contracting officer should accept the financing payments as reimbursable costs of the prime contract only under the following conditions:
(a) The payments are made under the criteria in subpart 32.5 for customary progress payments based on costs, 32.202-1 for commercial product or commercial service purchase financing, or 32.1003 for performance-based payments, as applicable.
(b) If customary progress payments are made, the payments do not exceed the progress payment rate in 32.501-1, unless unusual progress payments to the subcontractor have been approved in accordance with 32.501-2.
(d) If performance-based payments are made, the subcontractor complies with the liquidation principles of 32.1004(d).
(e) The subcontract contains financing payments terms as prescribed in this part.
32.111 Contract clauses for non-commercial purchases.
(a) The contracting officer shall insert the following clauses, appropriately modified with respect to payment due dates, in accordance with agency regulations-
(1) The clause at 52.232-1, Payments, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price supply contract, a fixed-price service contract, or a contract for nonregulated communication services is contemplated;
(2) The clause at 52.232-2, Payment under Fixed-Price Research and Development Contracts, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price research and development contract is contemplated;
(3) The clause at 52.232-3, Payments under Personal Services Contracts, in solicitations and contracts for personal services;
(4) The clause at 52.232-4, Payments under Transportation Contracts and Transportation-Related Services Contracts, in solicitations and contracts for transportation or transportation-related services;
(5) The clause at 52.232-5, Payments under Fixed-Price Construction Contracts, in solicitations and contracts for construction when a fixed-price contract is contemplated;
(6) The clause at 52.232-6, Payments under Communication Service Contracts with Common Carriers, in solicitations and contracts for regulated communication services by common carriers; and
(7) The clause at 52.232-7, Payments under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour Contracts, in solicitations and contracts when a time-and-materials or labor-hour contract is contemplated. If the contracting officer determines that it is necessary to withhold payment to protect the Government’s interests, paragraph (a)(7) of the clause permits the contracting officer to unilaterally issue a modification requiring the contractor to withhold 5 percent of amounts due, up to a maximum of $50,000 under the contract. The contracting officer shall ensure that the modification specifies the percentage and total amount of the withhold payment. Normally, there should be no need to withhold payment for a contractor with a record of timely submittal of the release discharging the Government from all liabilities, obligations, and claims, as required by paragraph (g) of the clause.
(b) The contracting officer shall insert the following clauses, appropriately modified with respect to payment due dates in accordance with agency regulations:
(1) The clause at 52.232-8, Discounts for Prompt Payment, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price supply contract or fixed-price service contract is contemplated.
(2) A clause, substantially the same as the clause at 52.232-9, Limitation on Withholding of Payments, in solicitations and contracts when a supply contract, research and development contract, service contract, time-and-materials contract, or labor-hour contract is contemplated that includes two or more terms authorizing the temporary withholding of amounts otherwise payable to the contractor for supplies delivered or services performed.
(c) The contracting officer shall insert the following clauses, appropriately modified with respect to payments due dates in accordance with agency regulations:
(1) The clause at 52.232-10, Payments under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts, in fixed-price architect-engineer contracts.
(2) The clause at 52.232-11, Extras, in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price supply contract, fixed-price service contract, or a transportation contract is contemplated.
32.112 Nonpayment of subcontractors under contracts other than for commercial products and commercial services.
32.112-1 Subcontractor assertions of nonpayment.
(a) In accordance with Section 806(a)(4) of Pub.L.102-190, as amended by Sections2091 and 8105 of Pub.L.103-355 (10 U.S.C. 4601 note prec.), upon the assertion by a subcontractor or supplier of a Federal contractor that the subcontractor or supplier has not been paid in accordance with the payment terms of the subcontract, purchase order, or other agreement with the prime contractor, the contracting officer may determine-
(1) For a construction contract, whether the contractor has made-
(i) Progress payments to the subcontractor or supplier in compliance with Chapter 39 of Title 31, United States Code (Prompt Payment Act); or
(ii) Final payment to the subcontractor or supplier in compliance with the terms of the subcontract, purchase order, or other agreement with the prime contractor;
(2) For a contract other than construction, whether the contractor has made progress payments, final payments, or other payments to the subcontractor or supplier in compliance with the terms of the subcontract, purchase order, or other agreement with the prime contractor; or
(3) For any contract, whether the contractor’s certification of payment of a subcontractor or supplier accompanying its payment request to the Government is accurate.
(b) If, in making the determination in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this subsection, the contracting officer finds the prime contractor is not in compliance, the contracting officer may-
(1) Encourage the contractor to make timely payment to the subcontractor or supplier; or
(2) If authorized by the applicable payment clauses, reduce or suspend progress payments to the contractor.
(c) If the contracting officer determines that a certification referred to in paragraph (a)(3) of this subsection is inaccurate in any material respect, the contracting officer shall initiate administrative or other remedial action.
32.112-2 Subcontractor requests for information.
(a) In accordance with section 806(a)(1) of Public Law 102-190, as amended by sections 2091 and 8105 of Public Law 103-355 (10 U.S.C. 4601 note prec.), upon the request of a subcontractor or supplier under a Federal contract other than for a commercial product or commercial service, the contracting officer shall promptly advise the subcontractor or supplier as to—
(1) Whether the prime contractor has submitted requests for progress payments or other payments to the Federal Government under the contract; and
(2) Whether final payment under the contract has been made by the Federal Government to the prime contractor.
(b) In accordance with 5 U.S.C.552(b)(1), this subsection does not apply to matters that are-
(1) Specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive order to be kept classified in the interest of national defense or foreign policy; and
(2) Properly classified pursuant to such Executive order.
32.113 Customary contract financing.
The solicitation must specify the customary contract financing offerors may propose. The following are customary contract financing when provided in accordance with this part and agency regulations:
(a) Financing of shipbuilding, or ship conversion, alteration, or repair, when agency regulations provide for progress payments based on a percentage or stage of completion.
(b) Financing of construction or architect-engineer services purchased under the authority of part 36.
(c) Financing of contracts for supplies or services awarded under the sealed bid method of procurement in accordance with part 14 through progress payments based on costs in accordance with subpart 32.5.
(d) Financing of contracts for supplies or services awarded under the competitive negotiation method of procurement in accordance with part 15, through either progress payments based on costs in accordance with subpart 32.5, or performance-based payments in accordance with subpart 32.10 (but not both).
(e) Financing of contracts for supplies or services awarded under a sole-source acquisition as defined in 2.101 and using the procedures of part 15, through either progress payments based on costs in accordance with subpart 32.5, or performance-based payments in accordance with subpart 32.10 (but not both).
(f) Financing of contracts for supplies or services through advance payments in accordance with subpart 32.4.
(g) Financing of contracts for supplies or services through guaranteed loans in accordance with subpart 32.3.
(h) Financing of contracts for supplies or services through any appropriate combination of advance payments, guaranteed loans, and either performance-based payments or progress payments (but not both) in accordance with their respective subparts.
32.114 Unusual contract financing.
Any contract financing arrangement that deviates from this part is unusual contract financing. Unusual contract financing shall be authorized only after approval by the head of the agency or as provided for in agency regulations.
Subpart 32.2 - Commercial Product and Commercial Service Purchase Financing
32.200 Scope of subpart.
This subpart provides policies and procedures for commercial financing arrangements under commercial purchases pursuant to part 12.
32.201 Statutory authority.
(a) Use of financing in contracts. It is the responsibility of the contractor to provide all resources needed for performance of the contract. Thus, for purchases of commercial products or commercial services, financing of the contract is normally the contractor’s responsibility. However, in some markets the provision of financing by the buyer is a commercial practice. In these circumstances, the contracting officer may include appropriate financing terms in contracts for commercial purchases when doing so will be in the best interest of the Government.
(b) Authorization. Commercial interim payments and commercial advance payments may be made under the following circumstances-
(1) The contract item financed is a commercial supply or service;
(2) The contract price exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold;
(3) The contracting officer determines that it is appropriate or customary in the commercial marketplace to make financing payments for the item;
(4) Authorizing this form of contract financing is in the best interest of the Government (see paragraph (e) of this sub-section);
(5) Adequate security is obtained (see 32.202-4);
(6) Prior to any performance of work under the contract, the aggregate of commercial advance payments shall not exceed 15 percent of the contract price;
(7) The contract is awarded on the basis of competitive procedures or, if only one offer is solicited, adequate consideration is obtained (based on the time value of the additional financing to be provided) if the financing is expected to be substantially more advantageous to the offeror than the offeror’s normal method of customer financing; and
(8) The contracting officer obtains concurrence from the payment office concerning liquidation provisions when required by 32.206(e).
(c) Difference from other than commercial financing. Government financing of commercial purchases under this subpart is expected to be different from that used for other than commercial purchases under subpart 32.1 and its related subparts. While the contracting officer may adapt techniques and procedures from the other than commercial subparts for use in implementing commercial contract financing arrangements, the contracting officer must have a full understanding of effects of the differing contract environments and of what is needed to protect the interests of the Government in commercial contract financing.
(d) Unusual contract financing. Any contract financing arrangement not in accord with the requirements of agency regulations or this part is unusual contract financing and requires advance approval in accordance with agency procedures. If not otherwise specified, such unusual contract financing shall be approved by the head of the contracting activity.
(e) Best interest of the Government. The statutes cited in 32.201 do not allow contract financing by the Government unless it is in the best interest of the United States. Agencies may establish standards to determine whether contract financing is in the best interest of the Government. These standards may be for certain types of procurements, certain types of items, or certain dollar levels of procurements.
32.202-2 Types of payments for commercial product and commercial service purchases.
These definitions incorporate the requirements of the statutory commercial financing authority and the implementation of the Prompt Payment Act.
Commercial advance payment, as used in this section, means a payment made before any performance of work under the contract. The aggregate of these payments shall not exceed 15 percent of the contract price. These payments are contract financing payments for prompt payment purposes (i.e., not subject to the interest penalty provisions of the Prompt Payment Act in accordance with subpart 32.9). These payments are not subject to subpart 32.4, Advance Payments for Other Than Commercial Acquisitions.
Commercial interim payment (see 32.001).
Delivery payment (see 32.001).
32.202-3 Conducting market research about financing terms.
Contract financing may be a subject included in the market research conducted in accordance with part 10. If market research for contract financing is conducted, the contracting officer should consider-
(a) The extent to which other buyers provide contract financing for purchases in that market;
(b) The overall level of financing normally provided;
(c) The amount or percentages of any payments equivalent to commercial advance payments (see 32.202-2);
(d) The basis for any payments equivalent to commercial interim payments (see 32.001), as well as the frequency, and amounts or percentages; and
(e) Methods of liquidation of contract financing payments and any special or unusual payment terms applicable to delivery payments (see 32.001).
32.202-4 Security for Government financing.
(1) 10 U.S.C. 3805 and 41 U.S.C.4505 require the Government to obtain adequate security for Government financing. The contracting officer shall specify in the solicitation the type of security the Government will accept. If the Government is willing to accept more than one form of security, the offeror shall be required to specify the form of security it will provide. If acceptable to the contracting officer, the resulting contract shall specify the security (see 32.206(b)(1)(iv)).
(2) Subject to agency regulations, the contracting officer may determine the offeror’s financial condition to be adequate security, provided the offeror agrees to provide additional security should that financial condition become inadequate as security (see paragraph (c) of the clause at 52.232-29, Terms for Financing of Purchases of Commercial Products and Commercial Services). Assessment of the contractor’s financial condition shall consider both net worth and liquidity. If the contracting officer finds the offeror’s financial condition is not adequate security, the contracting officer shall require other adequate security. Paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this subsection list other (but not all) forms of security that the contracting officer may find acceptable.
(3) The value of the security must be at least equal to the maximum unliquidated amount of contract financing payments to be made to the contractor. The value of security may be adjusted periodically during contract performance, as long as it is always equal to or greater than the amount of unliquidated financing.
(b) Paramount lien.
(1) The statutes cited in 32.201 provide that if the Government’s security is in the form of a lien, such lien is paramount to all other liens and is effective immediately upon the first payment, without filing, notice, or other action by the United States.
(2) When the Government’s security is in the form of a lien, the contract shall specify what the lien is upon, e.g., the work in process, the contractor’s plant, or the contractor’s inventory. Contracting officers may be flexible in the choice of assets. The contract must also give the Government a right to verify the existence and value of the assets.
(3) Provision of Government financing shall be conditioned upon a contractor certification that the assets subject to the lien are free from any prior encumbrances. Prior liens may result from such things as capital equipment loans, installment purchases, working capital loans, various lines of credit, and revolving credit arrangements.
(c) Other assets as security. Contracting officers may consider the guidance at 28.203 and 28.204 in determining which types of assets may be acceptable as security. For the purpose of applying the guidance in part 28 to this subsection, the term "surety" and/or "individual surety" should be interpreted to mean "offeror" and/or "contractor."
(d) Other forms of security. Other acceptable forms of security include-
(1) An irrevocable letter of credit from a federally insured financial institution;
(2) A bond from a surety, acceptable in accordance with part 28 (note that the bond must guarantee repayment of the unliquidated contract financing);
(3) A guarantee of repayment from a person or corporation of demonstrated liquid net worth, connected by significant ownership to the contractor; or
(4) Titleto identified contractor assets of adequate worth.
(e) Management of risk and security. In establishing contract financing terms, the contracting officer must be aware of certain risks. For example, very high amounts of financing early in the contract (front-end loading) may unduly increase the risk to the Government. The security and the amounts and timing of financing payments must be analyzed as a whole to determine whether the arrangement will be in the best interest of the Government.
32.203 Determining contract financing terms.
When the criteria in 32.202-1(b) are met, the contracting officer may either specify the financing terms in the solicitation (see 32.204) or permit each offeror to propose its own customary financing terms (see 32.205). When the contracting officer has sufficient information on financing terms that are customary in the commercial marketplace for the item, those terms may be specified in the solicitation.
32.204 Procedures for contracting officer-specified commercial contract financing.
The financing terms shall be included in the solicitation. Contract financing shall not be a factor in the evaluation of resulting proposals, and proposals of alternative financing terms shall not be accepted (but see 14.208 and 15.206 concerning amendments of solicitations). However, an offer stating that the contracting officer-specified contract financing terms will not be used by the offeror does not alter the evaluation of the offer, nor does it render the offer nonresponsive or otherwise unacceptable. In the event of award to an offeror who declined the proposed contract financing, the contract financing provisions shall not be included in the resulting contract. Contract financing shall not be a basis for adjusting offerors’ proposed prices, because the effect of contract financing is reflected in each offeror’s proposed prices.
32.205 Procedures for offeror-proposed commercial contract financing.
(a) Under this procedure, each offeror may propose financing terms. The contracting officer must then determine which offer is in the best interests of the United States.
(b) Solicitations. The contracting officer must include in the solicitation the provision at 52.232-31, invitation to Propose Financing Terms. The contracting officer must also-
(1) Specify the delivery payment (invoice) dates that will be used in the evaluation of financing proposals; and
(2) Specify the interest rate to be used in the evaluation of financing proposals (see paragraph (c)(4) of this section).
(c) Evaluation of proposals.
(1) When contract financing terms vary among offerors, the contracting officer must adjust each proposed price for evaluation purposes to reflect the cost of providing the proposed financing in order to determine the total cost to the Government of that particular combination of price and financing.
(2) Contract financing results in the Government making payments earlier than it otherwise would. In order to determine the cost to the Government of making payments earlier, the contracting officer must compute the imputed cost of those financing payments and add it to the proposed price to determine the evaluated price for each offeror.
(3) The imputed cost of a single financing payment is the amount of the payment multiplied by the annual interest rate, multiplied by the number of years, or fraction thereof, between the date of the financing payment and the date the amount would have been paid as a delivery payment. The imputed cost of financing is the sum of the imputed costs of each of the financing payments.
(4) The contracting officer must calculate the time value of proposal-specified contract financing arrangements using as the interest rate the nominal discount rate specified in AppendixC of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) CircularA-94, "Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Federal Programs," appropriate to the period of contract financing. Where the period of proposed financing does not match the periods in the OMB Circular, the interest rate for the period closest to the finance period shall be used. AppendixC is updated yearly, and is available from the Office of Economic Policy in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).
32.206 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.
(a) The contract shall contain the paragraph entitled "Payment" of the clause at 52.212-4, Contract Terms and Conditions-Commercial Products and Commercial Services. If the contract will provide for contract financing, the contracting officer shall construct a solicitation provision and contract clause. This solicitation provision shall be constructed in accordance with 32.204 or 32.205. If the procedure at 32.205 is used, the solicitation provision at 52.232-31, invitation to Propose Financing Terms, shall be included. The contract clause shall be constructed in accordance with the requirements of this subpart and any agency regulations.
(b) Each contract financing clause shall include:
(1) A description of the-
(i) Computation of the financing payment amounts (see paragraph (c) of this section);
(ii) Specific conditions of contractor entitlement to those financing payments (see paragraph (c) of this section);
(iii) Liquidation of those financing payments by delivery payments (see paragraph (e) of this section);
(iv) Security the contractor will provide for financing payments and any terms or conditions specifically applicable thereto (see 32.202-4); and
(v) Frequency, form, and any additional content of the contractor’s request for financing payment (in addition to the requirements of the clause at 52.232-29, Terms for Financing of Purchases of Commercial Products and Commercial Services; and
(2) Unless agency regulations authorize alterations, the unaltered text of the clause at 52.232-29, Terms for Financing of Purchases of Commercial Products and Commercial Services.
(c) Computation of amounts, and contractor entitlement provisions.
(1) Contracts shall provide that delivery payments shall be made only for completed supplies and services accepted by the Government in accordance with the terms of the contract. Contracts may provide for commercial advance and commercial interim payments based upon a wide variety of bases, including (but not limited to) achievement or occurrence of specified events, the passage of time, or specified times prior to the delivery date(s). The basis for payment must be objectively determinable. The clause written by the contracting officer shall specify, to the extent access is necessary, the information and/or facilities to which the Government shall have access for the purpose of verifying the contractor’s entitlement to payment of contract financing.
(2) If the contract is awarded using the offeror-proposed procedure at 32.205, the clause constructed by the contracting officer under paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall contain the following:
(i) A statement that the offeror’s proposed listing of earliest times and greatest amounts of projected financing payments submitted in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of the provision at 52.232-31, invitation to Propose Financing Terms, is incorporated into the contract, and
(ii) A statement that financing payments shall be made in the lesser amount and on the later of the date due in accordance with the financing terms of the contract, or in the amount and on the date projected in the listing of earliest times and greatest amounts incorporated in the contract.
(3) If the security accepted by the contracting officer is the contractor’s financial condition, the contracting officer shall incorporate in the clause constructed under paragraph (b)(1) of this section the following-
(i) A statement that the contractor’s financial condition has been accepted as adequate security for commercial financing payments; and
(ii) A statement that the contracting officer may exercise the Government’s rights to require other security under paragraph (c), Security for Government Financing, of the clause at 52.232-29, Terms for Financing of Purchases of Commercial Products and Commercial Services, in the event the contractor’s financial condition changes and is found not to be adequate security.
(d) Instructions for multiple appropriations. If contract financing is to be computed for the contract as a whole, and if there is more than one appropriation account (or subaccount) funding payments under the contract, the contracting officer shall include, in the contract, instructions for distribution of financing payments to the respective funds accounts. Distribution instructions and contract liquidation instructions must be mutually consistent.
(e) Liquidation. Liquidation of contract financing payments shall be on the same basis as the computation of contract financing payments; that is, financing payments computed on a whole contract basis shall be liquidated on a whole contract basis; and a payment computed on a line item basis shall be liquidated against that line item. If liquidation is on a whole contract basis, the contracting officer shall use a uniform liquidation percentage as the liquidation method, unless the contracting officer obtains the concurrence of the cognizant payment office that the proposed liquidation provisions can be executed by that office, or unless agency regulations provide alternative liquidation methods.
(f) Prompt payment for commercial purchase payments. The provisions of subpart 32.9, Prompt Payment, apply to contract financing and invoice payments for commercial purchases in the same manner they apply to other than commercial purchases. The contracting officer is responsible for including in the contract all the information necessary to implement prompt payment. In particular, contracting officers must be careful to clearly differentiate in the contract between contract financing and invoice payments and between items having different prompt payment times.
(g) Installment payment financing for commercial products and commercial services. Contracting officers may insert the clause at 52.232-30, Installment Payments for Commercial Products and Commercial Services, in solicitations and contracts in lieu of constructing a specific clause in accordance with paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, if the contract action qualifies under the criteria at 32.202-1(b) and installment payments for the item are either customary or are authorized in accordance with agency procedures.
(1) Description. Installment payment financing is payment by the Government to a contractor of a fixed number of equal interim financing payments prior to delivery and acceptance of a contract item. The installment payment arrangement is designed to reduce administrative costs. However, if a contract will have a large number of deliveries, the administrative costs may increase to the point where installment payments are not in the best interests of the Government.
(2) Authorized types of installment payment financing and rates. Installment payments may be made using the clause at 52.232-30, Installment Payments for Commercial Products and Commercial Services, either at the 70 percent financing rate cited in the clause or at a lower rate in accordance with agency procedures.
(3) Calculating the amount of installment financing payments. The contracting officer shall identify in the contract schedule those items for which installment payment financing is authorized. Monthly installment payment amounts are to be calculated by the contractor pursuant to the instructions in the contract clause only for items authorized to receive installment payment financing.
(4) Liquidating installment payments. If installment payments have been made for an item, the amount paid to the contractor upon acceptance of the item by the Government shall be reduced by the amount of installment payments made for the item. The contractor’s request for final payment for each item is required to show this calculation.
32.207 Administration and payment of commercial financing payments.
(a) Responsibility. The contracting officer responsible for administration of the contract shall be responsible for review and approval of contract financing requests.
(b) Approval of financing requests. Unless otherwise provided in agency regulations, or by agreement with the appropriate payment official-
(1) The contracting officer shall be responsible for receiving, approving, and transmitting all contract financing requests to the appropriate payment office; and
(2) Each approval shall specify the amount to be paid, necessary contractual information, and the account(s) (see 32.206(d)) to be charged for the payment.
(c) Management of security. After contract award, the contracting officer responsible for approving requests for financing payments shall be responsible for determining that the security continues to be adequate. If the contractor’s financial condition is the Government’s security, this contracting officer is also responsible for monitoring the contractor’s financial condition.
Subpart 32.3 - Loan Guarantees for Defense Production
32.300 Scope of subpart.
This subpart prescribes policies and procedures for designated agencies’ guarantees of loans made by private financial institutions to borrowers performing contracts related to national defense (see 30.102).
As used in this subpart-
Borrower means a contractor, subcontractor (at any tier), or other supplier who receives a guaranteed loan.
Federal Reserve Board means the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
Guaranteed loan or "V loan" means a loan, revolving credit fund, or other financial arrangement made pursuant to Regulation V of the Federal Reserve Board, under which the guaranteeing agency is obligated, on demand of the lender, to purchase a stated percentage of the loan and to share any losses in the amount of the guaranteed percentage.
Guaranteeing agency means any agency that the President has authorized to guarantee loans, through Federal Reserve Banks, for expediting national defense production.
Congress has authorized Federal Reserve Banks to act, on behalf of guaranteeing agencies, as fiscal agents of the United States in the making of loan guarantees for defense production (Section301, Defense Production Act of1950 (50 U.S.C. App.2091)). By Executive Order10480, August 14,1953 (3 CFR1949-53), as amended, the President has designated the following agencies as guaranteeing agencies:
(a) Department of Defense.
(b) Department of Energy.
(c) Department of Commerce.
(d) Department of the Interior.
(e) Department of Agriculture.
(f) General Services Administration.
(g) National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
(a) Section 301 of the Defense Production Act authorizes loan guarantees for contract performance or other operations related to national defense, subject to amounts annually authorized by Congress on the maximum obligation of any guaranteeing agency under any loan, discount, advance, or commitment in connection therewith, entered into under section 301. (See 50 U.S.C. App.2091 for statutory limitations and exceptions concerning the authorization of loan guarantee amounts and the use of loan guarantees for the prevention of insolvency or bankruptcy.)
(b) The guarantee shall be for less than 100 percent of the loan unless the agency determines that-
(1) The circumstances are exceptional;
(2) The operations of the contractor are vital to the national defense; and
(3) No other suitable means of financing are available.
(c) Loan guarantees are not issued to other agencies of the Government.
(d) Guaranteed loans are essentially the same as conventional loans made by private financial institutions, except that the guaranteeing agency is obligated, on demand of the lender, to purchase a stated percentage of the loan and to share any losses in the amount of guaranteed percentage. It is the responsibility of the private financial institution to disburse and collect funds and to administer the loan. Under Regulation V of the Federal Reserve Board (12 CFR245), any private financing institution may submit an application to the Federal Reserve Bank of its district for guarantee of a loan or credit.
(e) Federal Reserve Banks will make the loan guarantee agreements on behalf of the guaranteeing agencies.
(f) Under Section 302(c) of Executive Order10480, August 14,1953 (3 CFR1949-53), as amended, all actions and operations of Federal Reserve Banks, as fiscal agents, are subject to the supervision of the Federal Reserve Board. The Federal Reserve Board is authorized to prescribe the following, after consultation with the heads of guaranteeing agencies:
(1) Regulations governing the actions and operations of fiscal agents.
(2) Rates of interest, guarantee and commitment fees, and other charges that may be made for loans, discounts, advances, or commitments guaranteed by the guaranteeing agencies through the Federal Reserve Banks. These prescriptions may be in the form of specific rates or limits, or in other forms.
(3) Uniform forms and procedures to be used in connection with the guarantees.
(g) The guaranteeing agency is responsible for certifying eligibility for the guarantee and fixing the maximum dollar amount and maturity date of the guaranteed loan to meet the contractor’s requirement for financing performance of the defense production contract on hand at the time the guarantee application is submitted.
32.304-1 Application for guarantee.
(a) A contractor, subcontractor, or supplier that needs operating funds to perform a contract related to national defense may apply to a financing institution for a loan. If the financing institution is willing to extend credit, but considers a Government guarantee necessary, the institution may apply to the Federal Reserve Bank of its district for the guarantee. Application forms and guidance are available at all Federal Reserve Banks.
(b) The Federal Reserve Bank will promptly send a copy of the application, including a list of the relevant defense contracts held by the contractor, to the Federal Reserve Board. The Board will transmit the application and the list of contracts to the interested guaranteeing agency, so that the agency can determine the eligibility of the contractor.
(c) To expedite the process, the Federal Reserve Bank may, pursuant to instructions of a guaranteeing agency, submit lists of the defense contracts to the interested contracting officers.
(d) While eligibility is being determined, the Federal Reserve Bank will make any necessary credit investigations to supplement the information furnished by the applicant financing institution in order to-
(1) Expedite necessary defense financing; and
(2) Protect the Government against monetary loss.
(e) The Federal Reserve Bank will send its report and recommendation to the Federal Reserve Board. The Board will transmit them to the interested guaranteeing agency.
32.304-2 Certificate of eligibility.
(a) The contracting officer shall prepare the certificate of eligibility for a contract that the contracting officer deems to be of material consequence, when-
(1) The contract financing office requests it;
(2) Another interested agency requests it; or
(3) The application for a loan guarantee relates to a contract or subcontract within the cognizance of the contracting officer.
(b) The agency shall evaluate the relevant data, including the certificate of eligibility, the accompanying data, and any other relevant information on the contractor’s financial status and performance, to determine whether authorization of a loan guarantee would be in the Government’s interest.
(c) If the contractor has several major national defense contracts, it is normally not necessary to evaluate the eligibility of relatively minor contracts. The determination of eligibility should be processed, without delay, based on the preponderance of the amount of the contracts.
(d) The certificate of eligibility shall include the following determinations:
(1) The supplies or services to be acquired are essential to the national defense.
(2) The contractor has the facilities and the technical and management ability required for contract performance.
(3) There is no practicable alternate source for the acquisition without prejudice to the national defense. (This statement shall not be included if the contractor is a small business concern.)
(e) The contracting officer shall consider the following factors in determining if a practicable alternate source exists:
(1) Prejudice to the national defense, because reletting of a contract with another source would conflict with a major policy on defense acquisition; e.g., policies relating to the mobilization base.
(2) The urgency of contract performance schedules.
(3) The technical ability and facilities of other potential sources.
(4) The extent to which other sources would need contract financing to perform.
(5) The willingness of other sources to enter into contracts.
(6) The time and expense involved in repurchasing for contracts or parts of contracts. This may include potential claims under a termination for convenience or delays incident to default at a later date.
(7) The comparative prices available from other sources.
(8) The disruption of established subcontracting arrangements.
(9) Other pertinent factors.
(f) The contracting officer shall attach sufficient data to the certificate of eligibility to support the determinations made. Available pertinent information shall be included on-
(1) The contractor’s past performance;
(2) The relationship of the contractor’s operations to performance schedules; and
(3) Other factors listed in paragraph (e) of this section, if relevant to the case under consideration.
(g) If the contracting officer determines that a certificate of eligibility is not justified, the facts and reasons supporting that conclusion shall be documented and furnished to the agency contract finance office.
(h) The guaranteeing agency shall review the proposed guarantee terms and conditions. If they are considered appropriate, the guaranteeing agency shall complete a standard form of authorization as prescribed by the Federal Reserve Board. The agency shall transmit the authorization through the Federal Reserve Board to the Federal Reserve Bank. The Bank is authorized to execute and deliver to the financing institution a standard form of guarantee agreement, with the terms and conditions approved for the particular case. The financing institution will then make the loan.
(i) Substantially the same procedure may be followed for the application of an offeror who is actively negotiating or bidding for a defense contract, except that the guarantee shall not be authorized until the contract has been executed.
(j) The contracting officer shall report to the agency contract finance office any information about the contractor that would have a potentially adverse impact on a pending guarantee application. The contracting officer is not required, however, to initiate any special investigation for this purpose.
(k) With regard to existing contracts, the agency shall not consider the percentage of guarantee requested by the financing institution in determining the contractor’s eligibility.
32.304-3 Asset formula.
(a) Under guaranteed loans made primarily for working capital purposes, the agency shall normally limit the guarantee, by use of an asset formula, to an amount that does not exceed a specified percentage (90 percent or less) of the contractor’s investment (e.g., payrolls and inventories) in defense production contracts. The asset formula may include all items under defense contracts for which the contractor would be entitled to payment on performance or termination. The formula shall exclude-
(1) Amounts for which the contractor has not done any work or made any expenditure;
(2) Amounts that would become due as the result of later performance under the contracts; and
(3) Cash collateral or bank deposit balances.
(b) Progress payments are deducted from the asset formula.
(c) The agency may relax the asset formula to an appropriate extent for the time actually necessary for contract performance, if the contractor’s working capital and credit are inadequate.
32.304-4 Guarantee amount and maturity.
The agency may change the guarantee amount or maturity date, within the limitations at 32.304-3, as follows:
(a) If the contractor enters into additional defense production contracts after the application for, but before authorization of, a guarantee, the agency may adjust the loan guarantee amount or maturity date to meet any significant increase in financing need.
(b) If the contractor enters into defense production contracts during the term of the guaranteed loan, the parties may adjust the existing guarantee agreement to provide for financing the new contracts. Pertinent information and the Federal Reserve Bank reports will be submitted to the guaranteeing agency under the procedures for the original guarantee application, described in 32.304-1. Normally, a new certificate of eligibility is required.
32.304-5 Assignment of claims under contracts.
(a) The agency shall generally require a contractor that is provided a guaranteed loan to execute an assignment of claims under defense production contracts (including any contracts entered into during the term of the guaranteed loan that are eligible for financing under the loan); however, the agency need not require assignment if any of the following conditions are present:
(1) The contractor’s financial condition is so strong that the protection to the Government provided by an assignment of claims is unnecessary.
(2) In connection with the assignment of claims under a major contract, the increased protection of the loan that would be provided by the assignments under additional, relatively smaller contracts is not considered necessary by the agency.
(3) The assignment of claims would create an administrative burden disproportionate to the protection required; e.g., if the contractor has a large number of contracts with individually small dollar amounts.
(b) The contractor shall also execute an assignment of claims if requested to do so by the guarantor or the financing institution.
(c) A subcontract or purchase order issued to a subcontractor shall not be considered eligible for financing under guaranteed loans when the issuer of the subcontract or purchase order reserves-
(1) The privilege of making payments directly to the assignor or to the assignor and assignee jointly, after notice of the assignment, or
(2) The right to reduce or set off assigned proceeds under defense production contracts by reason of claims against the borrower arising after notice of assignment and independently of defense production contracts under which the borrower is the seller.
32.304-6 Other collateral security.
The following are examples of other forms of security that, although seldom invoked under guaranteed loans, may be required when considered necessary for protection of the Government interest:
(a) Mortgages on fixed assets.
(b) Liens against inventories.
(e) Subordinations or standbys of other indebtedness.
32.304-7 Contract surety bonds and loan guarantees.
(a) Contract surety bonds are incompatible with the Government’s interests under guaranteed loans, unless the interests of the surety are subordinated to the guaranteed loan.
(b) If a substantial share of the contractor’s defense contracts are covered by surety bonds, or the amount of the bond is substantial in relation to the contractor’s net worth, the agency shall not authorize the guarantee of a loan on a bonded contract unless the surety enters into an agreement with the financing institution to subordinate the surety’s rights and claims in favor of the guaranteed loan.
(c) The agency approval of a guarantee for a loan involving relatively substantial subcontracts covered by surety bonds shall also depend on the establishment of a reasonable allocation agreement between the sureties and the financing institution. The agreement should give the financing institution the benefit, with regard to payments to be made on the contract, of the portion of its loans fairly attributable to expenditures made under the bonded subcontracts before notice of default.
32.304-8 Other borrowing.
(a) Because of the limitations under guaranteed loans, some contractors seek to supplement the loan by other borrowing (outside the guarantee) from the financing institution or other sources. It has been recognized in practice that, while prohibition of borrowings outside the guaranteed loan is preferable when practicable in a given V-loan case, such other borrowings should be permitted when necessary.
(b) If the agency consents to the contractor obtaining other borrowing during the guaranteed loan period, the agency shall apply the following restrictions:
(1) A reasonable limit on the amount of other borrowing.
(2) If guaranteed and unguaranteed loans are made by the same financing institution, a requirement that any collateral security requested by the institution under the unguaranteed loan is also to be secondary collateral for the guaranteed loan.
(3) A requirement that the contractor provide appropriate documentation to the guaranteeing agency, at intervals not longer than 30 days, to disclose outstanding unguaranteed borrowings.
32.305 Loan guarantees for terminated contracts.
(a) The purpose of guaranteed loans; i.e., to provide for financing based on the borrower’s recoverable investment in defense production contracts, may also apply to contracts that have been terminated (partially or totally) for the convenience of the Government. Guaranteed loans also may be made before such termination if it is known that termination of particular contracts for the convenience of the Government is about to occur. These loans are expected to provide necessary financing pending termination settlements and payments. They may also finance continuing performance of defense production contracts that are eligible for guaranteed loans.
(b) The procedure for such guarantees is substantially the same as that outlined in 32.304, except that certificates of eligibility are not required for (1) contracts that have been totally terminated or (2) the terminated portion of contracts that have been partially terminated. The agency shall take precautions necessary to avoid Government losses and to ensure the loans will be self-liquidating from the proceeds of defense production contracts.
(c) Loan guarantees for contract termination financing shall not be provided before specific contract terminations are certain.
32.306 Loan guarantees for subcontracts.
If the request for a loan guarantee concerns a subcontractor that is financially weak in comparison with its contractor, the Government’s interests may be fostered by the contractor making progress payments to the subcontractor. If so, the agency shall try to arrange for the contractor to provide the progress payments. As a result, the need for the loan guarantee may be reduced or eliminated and the contractor would bear part or all of the risk of loss arising from the selection of the subcontractor.
Subpart 32.4 - Advance Payments for Other Than Commercial Acquisitions
32.400 Scope of subpart.
This subpart provides policies and procedures for advance payments on prime contracts and subcontracts. It does not include policies and procedures for advance payments for the types of transactions listed in 32.404. This subpart does not apply to commercial advance payments, which are subject to subpart 32.2.
32.401 Statutory authority.
The agency may authorize advance payments in negotiated and sealed bid contracts if the action is appropriate under-
(a) 41 U.S.C.chapter 45;
(b) 10 U.S.C. chapter 277; or
(b) Advance payments may be provided on any type of contract; however, the agency shall authorize advance payments sparingly. Except for the contracts described in 32.403(a) and (b), advance payment is the least preferred method of contract financing (see 32.106) and generally they should not be authorized if other types of financing are reasonably available to the contractor in adequate amounts. Loans and credit at excessive interest rates or other exorbitant charges, or loans from other Government agencies, are not considered reasonably available financing.
(c) If statutory requirements and standards for advance payment determinations are met, the contracting officer shall generally recommend that the agency authorize advance payments.
(1) The statutory requirements are that-
(i) The contractor gives adequate security;
(ii) The advance payments will not exceed the unpaid contract price (see 32.410(b), paragraph (a)(2)); and
(iii) The agency head or designee determines, based on written findings, that the advance payment-
(A) Is in the public interest (under 32.401(a) or (b)); or
(B) Facilitates the national defense (under 32.401(c)).
(2) The standards for advance payment determinations are that-
(i) The advance payments will not exceed the contractor’s interim cash needs based on-
(A) Analysis of the cash flow required for contract performance;
(B) Consideration of the reimbursement or other payment cycle; and
(C) To the extent possible, employment of the contractor’s own working capital;
(ii) The advance payments are necessary to supplement other funds or credit available to a contractor;
(iii) The recipient is otherwise qualified as a responsible contractor;
(iv) The Government will benefit from performance prospects or there are other practical advantages; and
(v) The case fits one or more of the categories described in 32.403.
(d) If necessary, the agency may authorize advance payments in addition to progress or partial payments on the same contract (see 32.501-1(c)).
(e) Each agency that provides advance payments shall-
(1) Place the responsibility for making findings and determinations, and for approval of contract terms concerning advance payments (see 32.410), at an organizational level high enough to ensure uniform application of this subpart (see the limitation at 50.102-1(b) which also applies to advance payments authorized under Pub.L.85-804 (50 U.S.C.1431-1435)); and
(2) Establish procedures for coordination, before advance payment authorization, with the activity that provides contract financing support.
(f) If the contract provides for advance payments under Pub.L.85-804, the contracting officer shall ensure conformance with the requirements of 50.103-7.
Advance payments may be considered useful and appropriate for the following:
(a) Contracts for experimental, research, or development work with nonprofit educational or research institutions.
(b) Contracts solely for the management and operation of Government-owned plants.
(c) Contracts for acquisition, at cost, of property for Government ownership.
(d) Contracts of such a highly classified nature that the agency considers it undesirable for national security to permit assignment of claims under the contract.
(e) Contracts entered into with financially weak contractors whose technical ability is considered essential to the agency. In these cases, the agency shall closely monitor the contractor’s performance and financial controls to reduce the Government’s financial risk.
(f) Contracts for which a loan by a private financial institution is not practicable, whether or not a loan guarantee under this part is issued; for example, if-
(1) Financing institutions will not assume a reasonable portion of the risk under a guaranteed loan;
(2) Loans with reasonable interest rates or finance charges are not available to the contractor; or
(3) Contracts involve operations so remote from a financial institution that the institution could not be expected to suitably administer a guaranteed loan.
(g) Contracts with small business concerns, under which circumstances that make advance payments appropriate often occur (but see 32.104(b)).
(h) Contracts under which exceptional circumstances make advance payments the most advantageous contract financing method for both the Government and the contractor.
(a) This subpart does not apply to advance payments authorized by law for-
(3) Insurance premiums;
(4) Expenses of investigations in foreign countries;
(5) Extension or connection of public utilities for Government buildings or installations;
(6) Subscriptions to publications;
(7) Purchases of supplies or services in foreign countries, if-
(i) The purchase price does not exceed $15,000 (or equivalent amount of the applicable foreign currency); and
(ii) The advance payment is required by the laws or government regulations of the foreign country concerned;
(8) Enforcement of the customs or narcotics laws; or
(9) Other types of transactions excluded by agency procedures under statutory authority.
(b) Agencies may issue their own instructions to deal with advance payment items in paragraph (a) of this section authorized under statutes relevant to their agencies.
32.405 Applying Pub.L.85-804 to advance payments under sealed bid contracts.
(a) Actions that designated agencies may take to facilitate the national defense without regard to other provisions of law relating to contracts, as explained in 50.101-1(a), also include making advance payments. These advance payments may be made at or after award of sealed bid contracts, as well as negotiated contracts.
(b) Bidders may request advance payments before or after award, even if the invitation for bids does not contain an advance payment provision. However, the contracting officer shall reject any bid requiring that advance payments be provided as a basis for acceptance.
(c) When advance payments are requested, the agency may-
(1) Enter into the contract and provide for advance payments conforming to this part 32;
(2) Enter into the contract without providing for advance payments if the contractor does not actually need advance payments; or
(3) Deny award of the contract if the request for advance payments has been disapproved under 32.409-2 and funds adequate for performance are not otherwise available to the offeror.
32.406 Letters of credit.
(a) The Department of the Treasury (Treasury) prescribes regulations and instructions covering the use of letters of credit for advance payments under contracts. See Treasury Department Circular1075 (31 CFR Part 205), and the implementing instructions in the Treasury Financial Manual, available in offices providing financial advice and assistance.
(b) If agencies provide advance payments to contractors, use of the following methods is required unless the agency has obtained a waiver from the Treasury Department:
(1) By letter of credit if the contracting agency expects to have a continuing relationship with the contractor for a year or more, with advances totaling at least $120,000 a year.
(2) By direct Treasury check if the circumstances do not meet the criteria in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(c) If the agency has entered into multiple contracts (or a combination of contract(s) and assistance agreement(s)) involving eligibility of a contractor for more than one letter of credit, the agency shall follow arrangements made under Treasury procedures for-
(1) Consolidating funding to the same contractor under one letter of credit or
(2) Replacing multiple letters of credit with a single letter of credit.
(d) The letter of credit enables the contractor to withdraw Government funds in amounts needed to cover its own disbursements of cash for contract performance. Whenever feasible, the agency shall, under the direction and approval of the Department of the Treasury, use a letter of credit method that requires the contractor not to withdraw the Government funds until the contractor’s checks have been-
(1) Forwarded to the payees (delay of drawdown technique), or
(2) Presented to the contractor’s bank for payment (checks paid technique) (see 31 CFR205.3 and 205.4(d)).
(e) The Treasury regulations provide for terminating the advance financing arrangement if the contractor is unwilling or unable to minimize the elapsed time between receipt of the advance and disbursement of the funds. In such cases, if reversion to normal payment methods is not feasible, the Treasury regulation provides for use of a working capital method of advance; i.e., for limiting advances to-
(1) Only the estimated disbursements for a given initial period; and
(2) Subsequently, for only actual cash disbursements (31 CFR205.3(k) and 205.7).
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the contracting officer shall charge interest on the daily unliquidated balance of all advance payments at the higher of-
(1) The published prime rate of the financial institution (depository) in which the special account (see 32.409-3) is established; or
(2) The rate established by the Secretary of the Treasury under 50 U.S.C. App.1215(b)(2).
(b) The interest rate for advance payments shall be adjusted for changes in the prime rate of the depository and the semiannual determination by the Secretary of the Treasury under 50 U.S.C. App.1215(b)(2). The contracting officer shall obtain data from the depository on changes in the interest rate during the month. Interest shall be computed at the end of each month on the daily unliquidated balance of advance payments at the applicable daily interest rate.
(c) Interest shall be required on contracts that are for acquisition, at cost, of property for Government ownership, if the contracts are awarded in combination with, or in contemplation of, supply contracts or subcontracts.
(d) The agency head or designee may authorize advance payments without interest under the following types of contracts, if in the Government’s interest:
(1) Contracts for experimental, research, or development work (including studies, surveys, and demonstrations in socio-economic areas) with nonprofit education or research institutions.
(2) Contracts solely for the management and operation of Government-owned plants.
(3) Cost-reimbursement contracts with governments, including State or local governments, or their instrumentalities.
(4) Other classes of contracts, or unusual cases, for which the exclusion of interest on advances is specifically authorized by agency procedures.
(e) If a contract provides for interest-free advance payments, the contracting officer may require the contractor to charge interest on advances or downpayments to subcontractors and credit the Government for the proceeds from the interest charges. Interest rates shall be determined as described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. The contracting officer need not require the contractor to charge interest on an advance to a subcontractor that is an institution of the kind described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section.
(f) The contracting officer shall not allow interest charges, required by this 32.407, as reimbursable costs under cost-reimbursement contracts, whether the interest charge was incurred by the prime contractor or a subcontractor.
32.408 Application for advance payments.
(a) A contractor may apply for advance payments before or after the award of a contract.
(b) The contractor shall submit any advance payment request in writing to the contracting officer and provide the following information:
(1) A reference to the contract if the request concerns an existing contract, or a reference to the solicitation if the request concerns a proposed contract.
(2) A cash flow forecast showing estimated disbursements and receipts for the period of contract performance. If the application pertains to a type of contract described in 32.403(a) or (b), the contractor shall limit the forecast to the contract to be financed by advance payments.
(3) The proposed total amount of advance payments.
(4) The name and address of the financial institution at which the contractor expects to establish a special account as depository for the advance payments. If advance payments in the form of a letter of credit are anticipated, the contractor shall identify the specific account at the financial institution to be used. This paragraph (b)(4) is not applicable if an alternate method is used under agency procedures.
(5) A description of the contractor’s efforts to obtain unguaranteed private financing or a V-loan (see 32.301) under eligible contracts. This requirement is not applicable to the contract types described in 32.403(a) or (b).
(6) Other information appropriate to an understanding of (i) the contractor’s financial condition and need, (ii) the contractor’s ability to perform the contract without loss to the Government, and (iii)financial safeguards needed to protect the Government’s interest. Ordinarily, if the contract is a type described in 32.403(a) or (b), the contractor may limit the response to this paragraph (b)(6) to information on the contractor’s reliability, technical ability, and accounting system and controls.
32.409 Contracting officer action.
After analysis of the contractor’s application and any appropriate investigation, the contracting officer shall recommend approval or disapproval and transmit the request and recommendation to the approving authority designated under 32.402(e).
32.409-1 Recommendation for approval.
If recommending approval, the contracting officer shall transmit the following, under agency procedures, to the approving authority:
(a) Contract data, including-
(1) Identification and date of the award;
(2) Citation of the appropriation;
(3) Type and dollar amount of the contract;
(4) Items to be supplied, schedule of deliveries or performance, and status of any deliveries or performance;
(5) The contract fee or profit contemplated; and
(6) A copy of the contract, if available.
(b) The contractor’s request and supporting information.
(c) A report on the contractor’s past performance, responsibility, technical ability, and plant capacity.
(d) Comments on-
(1) The contractor’s need for advance payments; and
(2) Potential Government benefits from the contract performance.
(e) Proposed advance payment contract terms, including proposed security requirements.
(f) The findings, determination, and authorization (see 32.410).
(g) The recommendation for approval of the advance payment request.
(h) Justification of any proposal for waiver of interest charges (see 32.407).
32.409-2 Recommendation for disapproval.
If recommending disapproval, the contracting officer shall, under agency procedures, transmit-
(a) The items prescribed in 32.409-1(a), (b), and (c); and
(b) The recommendation for disapproval and the reasons.
32.409-3 Security, supervision, and covenants.
(a) If advance payments are approved, the contracting officer shall enter into an agreement with the contractor covering special accounts and suitable covenants protecting the Government’s interest (see 32.411). This requirement generally applies under all statutory authorities, but modified requirements applicable to certain specific cases are prescribed in paragraphs (e) through (g) of this section.
(b) The agency shall-
(1) Ensure that the amount of advance payments does not exceed the contractor’s financial needs, and
(2) Closely supervise the contractor’s withdrawal of funds from special accounts in which the advance payments are deposited.
(c) In the terms of the agreement, the contracting officer should provide for a paramount lien in favor of the Government. This lien may supplement or replace other security requirements. The lien should cover-
(1) Supplies being acquired;
(2) Any credit balance in the special account in which advance payments are deposited; and
(3) All property that the contractor acquires for performing the contract, except to the extent to which the Government otherwise has valid title to the property.
(d) Security requirements vary to fit the circumstances of different cases. Minimum security requirements are covered by the clauses prescribed in the contract. The contracting officer may supplement these as necessary in each case for protection of the Government’s interest. Examples of additional security terms are-
(1) Personal or corporate endorsements or guarantees;
(2) Pledges of collateral;
(3) Subordination or standby of other indebtedness;
(4) Controls or limitations on profit distributions, salaries, bonuses or commissions, rentals and royalties, capital expenditures, creation of liens, retirement of stock or debt, and creation of additional obligations; and
(5) Advance payment bonds (rarely required).
(e) In an advance payment agreement with an instrumentality of the Government, a State, a local government, or an agency or instrumentality of a State or local government, the contracting officer may omit the requirement for deposit of the advances in a special account, if the official approving the advance determines that other adequate security exists to protect the Government’s interest.
(f) The requirements of this 32.409-3 do not apply when using letters of credit if an agency’s procedures provide for-
(1) The use under a cost-reimbursement contract of Federal funds deposited in the contractor’s account at a financial institution (without the contractor acquiring title to the funds); and
(2) The security of such deposit of public moneys in accordance with governing regulations of the Treasury Department.
(g) If a separate special account is not required; e.g., advance payment by a letter of credit, an agency may require a special account for an individual case, or classes of cases, if the circumstances warrant.
32.410 Findings, determination, and authorization.
(a) Each determination concerning advance payments shall be supported by written findings (see 32.402(c)(1)(iii)).
(b) The following is an example of the format and text of findings, determination, and authorization with alternative words, phrases, and paragraphs to be selected to conform to the circumstances involved:
Findings, Determination, and Authorization for Advance Payments
(a) The undersigned hereby finds that:
(1) The ________________ [Insert the name of the contracting activity] and ________________ [Insert the name of the contractor] (have entered) (propose to enter) into (negotiated) (sealed bid) Contract No.____________, dated __________. [Summarize the specific facts and significant circumstances concerning the contract and the contractor, that, together with the other findings, will clearly support the determination below.]
(2) Advance payments (in an amount not to exceed $______________ at any time outstanding) (in an aggregate amount not exceeding $________, less the aggregate amounts repaid, or withdrawn by the Government) are required by the Contractor to perform under the contract. The amount does not exceed the unpaid contract price or the estimated interim cash needs arising during the reimbursement cycle.
(3) The advance payments are necessary for prompt, efficient contract performance that will benefit the Government.
(4) The proposed advance payment clause provides for security for the protection of the Government. The clause requires that all payments will be deposited in a special account at the Contractor’s financial institution and that the Government will have a paramount lien on (i) the credit balance in the special account, (ii) any supplies contracted for, and (iii)any material or other property acquired for performance of the contract. [Insert the following, if applicable: (The Contractor’s financial management system provides for effective control over and accountability for all Federal funds under governing regulations of the Treasury Department.)(An advance payment bond is required.)] This security is considered adequate.
(5) Advance payments are the only adequate means of financing available to the Contractor, and the amount designated in (2) of this section is based, to the extent possible, on the use of the Contractor’s own working capital in performing the contract. [Insert paragraph(6), (7), or (8), as applicable.]
(6) The Contractor is a nonprofit (educational) (and) (research) institution, and the contract is for (experimental) (,) (research and development) work.
(7) The contract is solely for the management and operation of a Government-owned plant.
(8) The following unusual facts and circumstances favor making advance payments to the Contractor without interest: [List the pertinent facts and circumstances.]
(b) Based on the findings in paragraph (a) of this section, the undersigned determined that the making of the proposed advance payments, (with interest at the rate of ______ [Insert the interest rate computed in accordance with 32.407 ] percent on the daily unliquidated balance of the advance payments,) (without interest, except as provided by the proposed advance payment clause,) (is in the public interest) (will facilitate the national defense).
(c) The advance payments, of which (the amount at any time outstanding) (the aggregate amount, less the aggregate amounts repaid, or withdrawn by the Government), shall not exceed $_____________, are hereby authorized under ( 41 U.S.C. chapter 45, Contract Financing) (10 U.S.C. chapter 277) (the Extraordinary Contracting Authority of Government Agencies in Connection with National Defense Functions (50 U.S.C.1431-1435) and Executive Order No.10789 of November 14,1958 (3 CFR 1958 Supp. pp. 72-74)) [or, if other, cite appropriate authority] on (terms substantially as contained in the proposed advance payment clause, a copy (an outline) of which is annexed to this authorization) (the following terms:) [Insert the appropriate terms.] (All prior authorizations for advance payments under Contract No. _________ are superseded.)
__________________________________________________ [Name Typed]
__________________________________________________ [Titleof Authorized Official]
[Each Findings, Determination, and Authorization shall be individually prepared to fit the particular circumstances at hand.Paragraphs(a)(1), (2), (3) and (4) and paragraphs (b) and (c) shall be used in each case. If the contract is (a) for experimental, developmental or research work and with a nonprofit educational or research institution, or (b) only for management and operation of a Government-owned plant, paragraph (a)(5) should not be included.If the advance payment is to be made without interest to the contractor, include paragraph (a)(6), (7), or (8). If any advance payments have previously been authorized for the contract, include the final sentence of paragraph (c). The alternate parenthetical wording or other modifications may be used as appropriate.The paragraphs actually used shall be renumbered sequentially.]
32.411 Agreement for special account at a financial institution.
The contracting officer must use substantially the following form of agreement for a special account for advance payments:
Agreement for Special Account
This agreement is entered into this _____ day of _____, 20___, between the United States of America (the Government), represented by the Contracting Officer executing this agreement, _____ [Insert the name of the Contractor], a _____ [Insert the name of the State of incorporation] corporation (the Contractor), and _____, a financial institution operating under the laws of _____, located at ____________ (the financial institution).
(a) Under date of _____, 20__, the Government and the Contractor entered into Contract No. _____, or a related supplemental agreement, providing for advance payments to the Contractor. A copy of the advance payment terms was furnished to the financial institution.
(b) The contract or supplemental agreement requires that amounts advanced to the Contractor be deposited separate from the Contractor’s general or other funds, in a Special Account at a member bank of the Federal Reserve System, any "insured" bank within the meaning of the Act creating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (12 U.S.C.1811), or a credit union insured by the National Credit Union Administration. The parties agree to deposit the amounts with the financial institution, which meets the requirement.
(c) This Special Account is designated "________ [Insert the Contractor’s name], _____________ [Insert the name of the Government agency] Special Account."
In consideration of the foregoing, and for other good and valuable considerations, the parties agree to the following conditions:
(a) The Government shall have a lien on the credit balance in the account to secure the repayment of all advance payments made to the Contractor. The lien is paramount to any lien or claim of the financial institution regarding the account.
(b) The financial institution is bound by the terms of the contract relating to the deposit and withdrawal of funds in the Special Account, but is not responsible for the application of funds withdrawn from the account. The financial institution shall act on written directions from the Contracting Officer, the administering office, or a duly authorized representative of either. The financial institution is not liable to any party to this agreement for any action that complies with the written directions. Any written directions received by the financial institution through the Contracting Officer on _____ [Insert the name of the agency] stationery and purporting to be signed by, or by the direction of _____ or duly authorized representative, shall be, as far as the rights, duties, and liabilities of the financial institution are concerned, considered as being properly issued and filed with the financial institution by the _____ [Insert the name of the agency].
(c) The Government, or its authorized representatives, shall have access to the books and records maintained by the financial institution regarding the Special Account at all reasonable times and for all reasonable purposes, including (but not limited to), the inspection or copying of the books and records and any and all pertinent memoranda, checks, correspondence, or documents. The financial institution shall preserve the books and records for a period of 6 years after the closing of this Special Account.
(d) In the event of the service of any writ of attachment, levy of execution, or commencement of garnishment proceedings regarding the Special Account, the financial institution will promptly notify ______ [Insert the name of the administering office].
(e) While this Special Account exists, the financial institution shall inform the Government each month of the financial institution’s published prime interest rate and changes to the rate during the month. The financial institution shall give this information to the Contracting Officer on the last business day of the month. [This covenant will not be included in the Special Account Agreements covering interest-free advance payments.]
Each of the parties to this agreement has executed the agreement on _________________, 20____.
[Signatures and Official Titles]
32.412 Contract clause.
(a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.232-12, Advance Payments, in solicitations and contracts under which the Government will provide advance payments, except as provided in 32.412(b).
(b) If the agency desires to waive the countersignature requirement because of the contractor’s financial strength, good performance record, and favorable experience concerning cost disallowances, the contracting officer shall use the clause with its Alternate I.
(c) If a cost-reimbursement contract is contemplated, the contracting officer shall use the clause with its AlternateII.
(d) If the agency considers a more rapid liquidation appropriate, the contracting officer shall use the clause with its AlternateIII.
(e) If the agency provides advance payments under the contract at no interest to the prime contractor, the contracting officer shall use the clause with its AlternateIV.
(f) If the requirement for a special account is eliminated in accordance with 32.409-3(e) or (g), the contracting officer shall insert in the solicitation or contract the clause set forth in Alternate V of 52.232-12, Advance Payments, instead of the basic clause.
Subpart 32.5 - Progress Payments Based on Costs
32.500 Scope of subpart.
This subpart prescribes policies, procedures, forms, solicitation provisions, and contract clauses for providing contract financing through progress payments based on costs. This subpart does not apply to-
(a) Payments under cost-reimbursement contracts, but see 32.110 for progress payments made to subcontractors under cost-reimbursement prime contracts; or
(b) Contracts for construction or for shipbuilding or ship conversion, alteration, or repair, when the contracts provide for progress payments based on a percentage or stage of completion.
Progress payments may be customary or unusual. Customary progress payments are those made under the general guidance in this subpart, using the customary progress payment rate, the cost base, and frequency of payment established in the Progress Payments clause, and either the ordinary liquidation method or the alternate method as provided in subsections 32.503-8 and 32.503-9. Any other progress payments are considered unusual, and may be used only in exceptional cases when authorized in accordance with subsection 32.501-2.
32.501-1 Customary progress payment rates.
(a) The customary progress payment rate is 80 percent, applicable to the total costs of performing the contract. The customary rate for contracts with small business concerns is 85 percent.
(b) The contracting officer must-
(1) Consider any rate higher than those permitted in paragraph (a) of this section an unusual progress payment; and
(2) Not include a higher rate in a contract unless advance agency approval is obtained as prescribed in 32.501-2.
(c) When advance payments and progress payments are authorized under the same contract, the contracting officer must not authorize a progress payment rate higher than the customary rate.
(d) In accordance with 10 U.S.C. 3804(b) and 41 U.S.C.4504(b), the limit for progress payments is 80 percent on work accomplished under undefinitized contract actions. The contracting officer must not authorize a higher rate under unusual progress payments or other customary progress payments for the undefinitized actions.
32.501-2 Unusual progress payments.
(a) The contracting officer may provide unusual progress payments only if-
(1) The contract necessitates predelivery expenditures that are large in relation to contract price and in relation to the contractor’s working capital and credit;
(2) The contractor fully documents an actual need to supplement any private financing available, including guaranteed loans; and
(3) The contractor’s request is approved by the head of the contracting activity or a designee. In addition, see 32.502-2.
(b) The excess of the unusual progress payment rate approved over the customary progress payment rate should be the lowest amount possible under the circumstances.
(c) Progress payments will not be considered unusual merely because they are on letter contracts or the definitive contracts that supersede letter contracts.
32.501-3 Contract price.
(a) For the purpose of making progress payments and determining the limitation on progress payments, the contract price shall be as follows:
(1) Under firm-fixed price contracts, the contract price is the current amount fixed by the contract plus the not-to-exceed amount for any unpriced modifications.
(2) If the contract is redeterminable or subject to economic price adjustment, the contract price is the initial price until modified.
(3) Under a fixed-price incentive contract, the contract price is the target price plus the not-to-exceed amount of unpriced modifications. However, if the contractor’s properly incurred costs exceed the target price, the contracting officer may provisionally increase the price up to the ceiling or maximum price.
(4) Under a letter contract, the contract price is the maximum amount obligated by the contract as modified.
(5) Under an unpriced order issued against a basic ordering agreement, the contract price is the maximum amount obligated by the order, as modified.
(6) Any portion of the contract specifically providing for reimbursement of costs only shall be excluded from the contract price.
(b) The contracting officer shall not make progress payments or increase the contract price beyond the funds obligated under the contract, as amended.
32.501-5 Other protective terms.
If the contracting officer considers it necessary for protection of the Government’s interest, protective terms such as the following may be used in addition to the Progress Payments clause of the contract:
(a) Personal or corporate guarantees.
(b) Subordinations or standbys of indebtedness.
(c) Special bank accounts.
(d) Protective covenants of the kinds in paragraph (p) of the clause at 52.232-12, Advance Payments.
(e) A provision, included in the solicitation and resultant contract when first article testing is required (see subpart 9.3), limiting progress payments on first article work by a stated amount or percentage.
32.502 Preaward matters.
This section covers matters that generally are relevant only before contract award. This does not preclude taking actions discussed here after award, if appropriate; e.g., postaward addition of a Progress Payments clause for consideration.
32.502-1 Use of customary progress payments.
The contracting officer may use a Progress Payments clause in solicitations and contracts, in accordance with this subpart. The contracting officer must reject as nonresponsive bids conditioned on progress payments when the solicitation did not provide for progress payments.
32.502-2 Contract finance office clearance.
The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance office or other offices designated under agency procedures before taking any of the following actions:
(a) Providing a progress payment rate higher than the customary rate (see 32.501-1).
(b) Deviating from the progress payments terms prescribed in this part.
(c) Providing progress payments to a contractor-
(1) Whose financial condition is in doubt;
(2) Who has had an advance payment request or loan guarantee denied for financial reasons (or approved but withdrawn or lapsed) within the previous 12 months; or
(3) Who is named in the consolidated list of contractors indebted to the United States (known commonly as the "Hold-up List").
32.502-3 Solicitation provisions.
(a) The contracting officer shall insert the provision at 52.232-13, Notice of Progress Payments, in invitations for bids and requests for proposals that include a Progress Payments clause.
(1) Under the authority of the statutes cited in 32.101, an invitation for bids may restrict the availability of progress payments to small business concerns only.
(2) The contracting officer shall insert the provision at 52.232-14, Notice of Availability of Progress Payments Exclusively for Small Business Concerns, in invitations for bids if it is anticipated that-
(i) Both small business concerns and others may submit bids in response to the same invitation; and
(ii) Only the small business bidders would need progress payments.
(c) The contracting officer shall insert the provision at 52.232-15, Progress Payments Not Included, in invitations for bids if the solicitation will not contain one of the provisions prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section.
32.502-4 Contract clauses.
(1) Insert the clause at 52.232-16, Progress Payments, in-
(i) Solicitations that may result in contracts providing for progress payments based on costs; and
(ii) Fixed-price contracts under which the Government will provide progress payments based on costs.
(2) If advance agency approval has been given in accordance with 32.501-1, the contracting officer may substitute a different customary rate for other than small business concerns for the progress payment and liquidation rate indicated.
(3) If an unusual progress payment rate is approved for the prime contractor (see 32.501-2), substitute the approved rate for the customary rate in paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(6), and (b) of the clause.
(5) If an unusual progress payment rate is approved for a subcontract (see 32.504(c) and 32.501-2), modify paragraph (j)(6) of the clause to specify the new rate, the name of the subcontractor, and that the new rate shall be used for that subcontractor in lieu of the customary rate.
(b) If the contractor is a small business concern, use the clause with its AlternateI.
(c) If the contract is a letter contract, use the clause with its AlternateII.
(d) If the contractor is not a small business concern, and progress payments are authorized under an indefinite-delivery contract, basic ordering agreement, or their equivalent, use the clause with its AlternateIII.
(e) If the nature of the contract necessitates separate progress payment rates for portions of work that are clearly severable and accounting segregation would be maintained (e.g., annual production requirements), describe the application of separate progress payment rates in a supplementary special provision within the contract. The contractor must submit separate progress payment requests and subsequent invoices for the severable portions of work in order to maintain accounting integrity.
32.503 Postaward matters.
This section covers matters that are generally relevant only after award of a contract. This does not preclude taking actions discussed here before award, if appropriate; e.g., preaward review of accounting systems and controls.
32.503-2 Supervision of progress payments.
(a) The extent of progress payments supervision, by prepayment review or periodic review, should vary inversely with the contractor’s experience, performance record, reliability, quality of management, and financial strength, and with the adequacy of the contractor’s accounting system and controls. Supervision shall be of a kind and degree sufficient to provide timely knowledge of the need for, and timely opportunity for, any actions necessary to protect Government interests.
(b) The administering office must keep itself informed of the contractor’s overall operations and financial condition, since difficulties encountered and losses suffered in operations outside the particular progress payment contract may affect adversely the performance of that contract and the liquidation of the progress payments.
(c) For contracts with contractors-
(1) Whose financial condition is doubtful or not strong in relation to progress payments outstanding or to be outstanding;
(2) With management of doubtful capacity;
(3) Whose accounting controls are found by experience to be weak; or
(4) Experiencing substantial difficulties in performance, full information on progress under the contract involved (including the status of subcontracts) and on the contractor’s other operations and overall financial condition should be obtained and analyzed frequently, with a view to protecting the Government’s interests better and taking such action as may be proper to make contract performance more certain.
(d) So far as practicable, all cost problems, particularly those involving indirect costs, that are likely to create disagreements in future administration of the contract should be identified and resolved at the inception of the contract (see 31.109).
32.503-3 Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system.
(a) For contractors that the administrative contracting officer (ACO) has found by previous experience or recent audit review (within the last 12 months) to be-
(1) Reliable, competent, and capable of satisfactory performance;
(2) Possessed of an adequate accounting system and controls; and
(3) In sound financial condition, progress payments in amounts requested by the contractor should be approved as a matter of course.
(b) For all other contractors, the ACO shall not approve progress payments before determining (1) that (i) the contractor will be capable of liquidating any progress payments or (ii) the Government is otherwise protected against loss by additional protective provisions, and (2) that the contractor’s accounting system and controls are adequate for proper administration of progress payments. The services of the responsible audit agency or office should be used to the greatest extent practicable. However, if the auditor so advises, a complete audit may not be necessary.
32.503-4 Approval of progress payment requests.
(a) When the reliability of the contractor and the adequacy of the contractor’s accounting system and controls have been established (see 32.503-3 of this section) the ACO may, in approving any particular progress payment request (including initial requests on new contracts), rely upon that accounting system and upon the contractor’s certification, without requiring audit or review of the request before payment.
(b) The ACO should not routinely ask for audits of progress payment requests. However, when there is reason to-
(1) Question the reliability or accuracy of the contractor’s certification; or
(2) Believe that the contract will involve a loss, the ACO should ask for a review or audit of the request before payment is approved or the request is otherwise disposed of.
(c) When there is reason to doubt the amount of a progress payment request, only the doubtful amount should be withheld, subject to later adjustment after review or audit; any clearly proper and due amounts should be paid without awaiting resolution of the differences.
32.503-5 Administration of progress payments.
(a) While the ACO may, in approving progress payment requests under 32.503-3 of this section, rely on the contractor’s accounting system and certification without prepayment review, postpayment reviews (including audits when considered necessary) shall be made periodically, or when considered desirable by the ACO to determine the validity of progress payments already made and expected to be made.
(b) These postpayment reviews or audits shall, as a minimum, include a determination of whether or not-
(1) The unliquidated progress payments are fairly supported by the value of the work accomplished on the undelivered portion of the contract;
(2) The applicable limitation on progress payments in the Progress Payments clause has been exceeded;
(i) The unpaid balance of the contract price will be adequate to cover the anticipated cost of completion; or
(ii) The contractor has adequate resources to complete the contract; and
(4) There is reason to doubt the adequacy and reliability of the contractor’s accounting system and controls and certification.
(c) Under indefinite-delivery contracts, the contracting officer should administer progress payments made under each individual order as if the order constituted a separate contract, unless agency procedures provide otherwise. When the contract will be administered by an agency other than the awarding agency, the contracting officer shall coordinate with the contract administration office if the awarding agency wants the administration of progress payments to be on a basis other than order-by-order.
32.503-6 Suspension or reduction of payments.
(a) General. The Progress Payments clause provides a Government right to reduce or suspend progress payments, or to increase the liquidation rate, under specified conditions. These conditions and actions are discussed in paragraphs (b) through (g) of this subsection.
(1) The contracting officer shall take these actions only in accordance with the contract terms and never precipitately or arbitrarily. These actions should be taken only after-
(i) Notifying the contractor of the intended action and providing an opportunity for discussion;
(ii) Evaluating the effect of the action on the contractor’s operations, based on the contractor’s financial condition, projected cash requirements, and the existing or available credit arrangements; and
(iii) Considering the general equities of the particular situation.
(2) The contracting officer shall take immediate unilateral action only if warranted by circumstances such as overpayments or unsatisfactory contract performance.
(3) In all cases, the contracting officer shall-
(i) Act fairly and reasonably;
(ii) Base decisions on substantial evidence; and
(iii) Document the contract file. Findings made under paragraph (c) of the Progress Payments clause shall be in writing.
(b) Contractor noncompliance.
(1) The contractor must comply with all material requirements of the contract. This includes the requirement to maintain an efficient and reliable accounting system and controls, adequate for the proper administration of progress payments. If the system or controls are deemed inadequate, progress payments shall be suspended (or the portion of progress payments associated with the unacceptable portion of the contractor’s accounting system shall be suspended) until the necessary changes have been made.
(2) If the contractor fails to comply with the contract without fault or negligence, the contracting officer will not take action permitted by paragraph (c)(1) of the Progress Payments clause, other than to correct overpayments and collect amounts due from the contractor.
(c) Unsatisfactory financial condition.
(1) If the contracting officer finds that contract performance (including full liquidation of progress payments) is endangered by the contractor’s financial condition, or by a failure to make progress, the contracting officer shall require the contractor to make additional operating or financial arrangements adequate for completing the contract without loss to the Government.
(2) If the contracting officer concludes that further progress payments would increase the probable loss to the Government, the contracting officer shall suspend progress payments and all other payments until the unliquidated balance of progress payments is eliminated.
(d) Excessive inventory. If the inventory allocated to the contract exceeds reasonable requirements (including a reasonable accumulation of inventory for continuity of operations), the contracting officer should, in addition to requiring the transfer of excessive inventory from the contract, take one or more of the following actions, as necessary, to avoid or correct overpayment:
(1) Eliminate the costs of the excessive inventory from the costs eligible for progress payments, with appropriate reduction in progress payments outstanding.
(2) Apply additional deductions to billings for deliveries (increase liquidation).
(e) Delinquency in payment of costs of performance.
(1) If the contractor is delinquent in paying the costs of contract performance in the ordinary course of business, the contracting officer shall evaluate whether the delinquency is caused by an unsatisfactory financial condition and, if so, shall apply the guidance in paragraph (c) of this section. If the contractor’s financial condition is satisfactory, the contracting officer shall not deny progress payments if the contractor agrees to-
(i) Cure the payment delinquencies;
(ii) Avoid further delinquencies; and
(iii) Make additional arrangements adequate for completing the contract without loss to the Government.
(2) If the contractor has, in good faith, disputed amounts claimed by subcontractors, suppliers, or others, the contracting officer shall not consider the payments delinquent until the amounts due are established by the parties through litigation or arbitration. However, the amounts shall be excluded from costs eligible for progress payments so long as they are disputed.
(3) Determinations of delinquency in making contributions under employee pension, profit sharing, or stock ownership plans, and exclusion of costs for such contributions from progress payment requests, shall be in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of the clause at 52.232-16, Progress Payments, without regard to the provisions of 32.503-6.
(f) Fair value of undelivered work. Progress payments must be commensurate with the fair value of work accomplished in accordance with contract requirements. The contracting officer must adjust progress payments when necessary to ensure that the fair value of undelivered work equals or exceeds the amount of unliquidated progress payments. On loss contracts, the application of a loss ratio as provided at paragraph (g) of this subsection constitutes this adjustment.
(g) Loss contracts.
(1) If the sum of the total costs incurred under a contract plus the estimated costs to complete the performance are likely to exceed the contract price, the contracting officer shall compute a loss ratio factor and adjust future progress payments to exclude the element of loss. The loss ratio factor is computed as follows:
(i) Revise the current contract price used in progress payment computations (the current ceiling price under fixed-price incentive contracts) to include the not-to-exceed amount for any pending change orders and unpriced orders.
(ii) Divide the revised contract price by the sum of the total costs incurred to date plus the estimated additional costs of completing the contract performance.
(2) If the contracting officer believes a loss is probable, future progress payment requests shall be modified as follows:
(i) The contract price shall be the revised amount computed under paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section.
(ii) The total costs eligible for progress payments shall be the product of-
(A) the sum of paid costs eligible for progress payments times;
(B) the loss ratio factor computed under paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section.
(iii) The costs applicable to items delivered, invoiced, and accepted shall not include costs in excess of the contract price of the items.
(3) The contracting officer may use audit assistance, technical services, management reports, and other sources of pertinent data to evaluate progress payment requests. If the contracting officer concludes that the contractor’s figures in the contractor’s progress payment request are not correct, the contracting officer shall-
(i) In the manner prescribed in paragraph (g)(4) of this section, prepare a supplementary analysis to be attached to the contractor’s request;
(ii) Advise the contractor in writing of the differences; and
(iii) Adjust all further progress payments in accordance with paragraph (g)(1) of this section, using the contracting officer’s figures, until the difference is resolved.
(4) The following is an example of the supplementary analysis required in paragraph (g)(3) of this subsection:
|Change orders and unpriced orders (to extent funds have been obligated)||$150,000|
|Revised contract price||$3,000,000|
|Total costs incurred to date||$2,700,000|
|Estimated additional costs to complete||$900,000|
|Total costs to complete||$3,600,000|
|Total costs eligible for progress payments||$2,700,000|
|Loss ratio factor||83.3%|
|Recognized costs for progress payments||$2,249,100|
|Progress payment rate||80.0%|
|Alternate amount to be used||$1,799,280|
|Factored costs of items delivered*||$750,000|
|Recognized costs applicable to undelivered items ($2,249,100–$750,000)||$1,499,100|
|*This amount must be the same as the contract price of the items delivered.|
32.503-8 Liquidation rates-ordinary method.
The Government recoups progress payments through the deduction of liquidations from payments that would otherwise be due to the contractor for completed contract items. To determine the amount of the liquidation, the contracting officer applies a liquidation rate to the contract price of contract items delivered and accepted. The ordinary method is that the liquidation rate is the same as the progress payment rate. At the beginning of a contract, the contracting officer must use this method.
32.503-9 Liquidation rates-alternate method.
(a) The liquidation rate determined under 32.503-8 shall apply throughout the period of contract performance unless the contracting officer adjusts the liquidation rate under the alternate method in this 32.503-9. The objective of the alternate liquidation rate method is to permit the contractor to retain the earned profit element of the contract prices for completed items in the liquidation process. The contracting officer may reduce the liquidation rate if-
(1) The contractor requests a reduction in the rate;
(2) The rate has not been reduced in the preceding 12 months;
(3) The contract delivery schedule extends at least 18 months from the contract award date;
(4) Data on actual costs are available-
(i) For the products delivered, or
(ii) If no deliveries have been made, for a performance period of at least 12 months;
(5) The reduced liquidation rate would result in the Government recouping under each invoice the full extent of the progress payments applicable to the costs allocable to that invoice;
(6) The contractor would not be paid for more than the costs of items delivered and accepted (less allocable progress payments) and the earned profit on those items;
(7) The unliquidated progress payments would not exceed the limit prescribed in paragraph (a)(5) of the Progress Payments clause;
(8) The parties agree on an appropriate rate; and
(9) The contractor agrees to certify annually, or more often if requested by the contracting officer, that the alternate rate continues to meet the conditions of subsections5, 6, and 7 of this section.The certificate must be accompanied by adequate supporting information.
(b) The contracting officer shall change the liquidation rate in the following circumstances:
(1) The rate shall be increased for both previous and subsequent transactions, if the contractor experiences a lower profit rate than the rate anticipated at the time the liquidation rate was associated with contract items already delivered, as well as subsequent progress payments.
(2) The rate shall be increased or decreased in keeping with the successive changes to the contract price or target profit when-
(i) The target profit is changed under a fixed-price incentive contract with successive targets; or
(ii) A redetermined price involves a change in the profit element under a contract with prospective price redetermination at stated intervals.
(c) Whenever the liquidation rate is changed, the contracting officer shall issue a contract modification to specify the new rate in the Progress Payments clause.Adequate consideration for these contract modifications is provided by the consideration included in the initial contract.The parties shall promptly make the payment or liquidation required in the circumstances.
32.503-10 Establishing alternate liquidation rates.
(a) The contracting officer must ensure that the liquidation rate is-
(1) High enough to result in Government recoupment of the applicable progress payments on each billing; and
(2) Supported by documentation included in the administration office contract file.
(b) The minimum liquidation rate is the expected progress payments divided by the contract price.Each of these factors is discussed below:
(1) The contracting officer must compute the expected progress payments by multiplying the estimated cost of performing the contract by the progress payment rate.
(2) For purposes of computing the liquidation rate, the contracting officer may adjust the estimated cost and the contract price to include the estimated value of any work authorized but not yet priced and any projected economic adjustments; however, the contracting officer’s adjustment must not exceed the Government’s estimate of the price of all authorized work or the funds obligated for the contract.
(3) The following are examples of the computation. Assuming an estimated price of $2,200,000 and total estimated costs eligible for progress payments of $2,000,000:
(i) If the progress payment rate is 80 percent, the minimum liquidation rate should be 72.7 percent, computed as follows:
(ii) If the progress payment rate is 85 percent, the minimum liquidation rate should be 77.3 percent, computed as follows:
(4) Minimum liquidation rates will generally be expressed to tenths of apercent. Decimals between tenths will be rounded up to the next highest tenth (not necessarily the nearest tenth), since rounding down would produce a rate below the minimum rate calculated.
32.503-11 Adjustments for price reduction.
(a) If a retroactive downward price reduction occurs under a redeterminable contract that provides for progress payments, the contracting officer shall-
(1) Determine the refund due and obtain repayment from the contractor for the excess of payments made for delivered items over amounts due as recomputed at the reduced prices; and
(2) Increase the unliquidated progress payments amount for overdeductions made from the contractor’s billings for items delivered.
(b) The contracting officer shall also increase the unliquidated progress payments amount if the contractor makes an interim or voluntary price reduction under a redeterminable or incentive contract.
32.503-12 Maximum unliquidated amount.
(a) The contracting officer shall ensure that any excess of the unliquidated progress payments over the contractual limitation in paragraph (a) of the Progress Payments clause in the contract is promptly corrected through one or more of the following actions:
(1) Increasing the liquidation rate.
(2) Reducing the progress payment rate.
(3) Suspending progress payments.
(b) The excess described in paragraph (a) of this section is most likely to arise under the following circumstances:
(1) The costs of performance exceed the contract price.
(2) The alternate method of liquidation (see 32.503-9)is used and the actual costs of performance exceed the cost estimates used to establish the liquidation rate.
(3) The rate of progress or the quality of contract performance is unsatisfactory.
(4) The rate of rejections, waste, or spoilage is exces-sive.
(c) As required, the services of the responsible audit agency or office should be fully utilized, along with the services of qualified cost analysis and engineering personnel.
32.503-14 Protection of Government title.
(a) Since the Progress Payments clause gives the Government title to all of the materials, work-in-process, finished goods, and other items of property described in paragraph (d) of the Progress Payments clause, under the contract under which progress payments have been made, the ACO must ensure that the Government title to these inventories is not compromised by other encumbrances. Ordinarily, the ACO, in the absence of reason to believe otherwise, may rely upon the contractor’s certification contained in the progress payment request.
(b) If the ACO becomes aware of any arrangement or condition that would impair the Government’s title to the property affected by progress payment, the ACO shall require additional protective provisions (see 32.501-5) to establish and protect the Government’s title.
(c) The existence of any such encumbrance is a violation of the contractor’s obligations under the contract, and the ACO may, if necessary, suspend or reduce progress payments under the terms of the Progress Payments clause covering failure to comply with any material requirement of the contract. In addition, if the contractor fails to disclose an existing encumbrance in the progress payments certification, the ACO should consult with legal counsel concerning possible violation of 31 U.S.C.3729, the False Claims Act.
32.503-15 Application of Government title terms.
(a) Property to which the Government obtains title by operation of the Progress Payments clause solely is not, as a consequence, Government-furnished property.
(b) Although property title is vested in the Government under the Progress Payments clause, the acquisition, handling, and disposition of certain types of property are governed by-
(1) The clause at 52.245-1, Government Property; and
(2) The termination clauses at 52.249, for termination inventory.
(c) The contractor may sell or otherwise dispose of current production scrap in the ordinary course of business on its own volition, even if title has vested in the Government under the Progress Payments clause. The contracting officer shall require the contractor to credit the costs of the contract performance with the proceeds of the scrap disposition.
(d) When the title to materials or other inventories is vested in the Government under the Progress Payments clause, the contractor may transfer the inventory items from the contract for its own use or other disposition only if, and on terms, approved by the contracting officer. The contractor shall-
(1) Eliminate the costs allocable to the transferred property from the costs of contract performance, and
(2) Repay or credit to the Government an amount equal to the unliquidated progress payments, allocable to the transferred property.
(e) If excess property remains after the contract performance is complete and all contractor obligations under the contract are satisfied, including full liquidation of progress payments, the excess property is outside the scope of the Progress Payments clause. Therefore, the contractor holds title to it.
32.503-16 Risk of loss.
(a) Under the Progress Payments clause, and except for normal spoilage, the contractor bears the risk of loss for Government property under the clause, even though title is vested in the Government, unless the Government has expressly assumed this risk. The clauses prescribed in this regulation related to progress payments, default, and terminations do not constitute a Government assumption of this risk.
(b) If a loss occurs in connection with property for which the contractor bears the risk, the contractor is obligated to repay to the Government the amount of unliquidated progress payments based on costs allocable to the property.
(c) The contractor is not obligated to pay for the loss of property for which the Government has assumed the risk of loss. However, a serious loss may impede the satisfactory progress of contract performance, so that the contracting officer may need to act under paragraph (c)(5) of the Progress Payments clause.
32.504 Subcontracts under prime contracts providing progress payments.
(a) Subcontracts may include either performance-based payments, provided they meet the criteria in 32.1003, or progress payments, provided they meet the criteria in subpart 32.5 for customary progress payments, but not both. Subcontracts for commercial purchases may include commercial product or commercial service purchase financing terms, provided they meet the criteria in 32.202-1.
(b) The contractor’s requests for progress payments may include the full amount of commercial product or commercial service purchase financing payments, performance-based payments, or progress payments to a subcontractor, whether paid or unpaid, provided that unpaid amounts are limited to amounts determined due and that the contractor will pay-
(1) In accordance with the terms and conditions of a subcontract or invoice; and
(2) Ordinarily within 30 days of the submission of the contractor’s progress payment request to the Government.
(c) If the contractor is considering making unusual progress payments to a subcontractor, the parties will be guided by the policies in 32.501-2. If the Government approves unusual progress payments for the subcontract, the contracting officer must issue a contract modification to specify the new rate in paragraph (j)(6) of the clause at 52.232-16, Progress Payments, in the prime contract. This will allow the contractor to include the progress payments to the subcontractor in the cost basis for progress payments by the Government. This modification is not a deviation and does not require the clearance prescribed in 32.502-2(b).
(d) The contractor has a duty to ensure that financing payments to subcontractors conform to the standards and principles prescribed in paragraph (j) of the Progress Payments clause in the prime contract. Although the contracting officer should, to the extent appropriate, review the subcontract as part of the overall administration of progress payments in the prime contract, there is no special requirement for contracting officer review or consent merely because the subcontract includes financing payments, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. However, the contracting officer must ensure that the contractor has installed the necessary management control systems, including internal audit procedures.
(e) When financing payments are in the form of progress payments, the Progress Payments clause at 52.232-16 requires that the subcontract include the substance of the Progress Payments clause in the prime contract, modified to indicate that the contractor, not the Government, awards the subcontract and administers the progress payments. The following exceptions apply to wording modifications:
(1) The subcontract terms on title to property under progress payments shall provide for vesting of title in the Government, not the contractor, as in paragraph (d) of the Progress Payments clause in the prime contract. A reference to the contractor may, however, be substituted for "Government" in paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of the clause.
(2) In the subcontract terms on reports and access to records, the contractor shall not delete the references to "Contracting Officer" and "Government" in adapting paragraph (g) of the Progress Payments clause in the contract, but may expand the terms as follows:
(i) The term "Contracting Officer" may be changed to "Contracting Officer or Prime Contractor."
(ii) The term "the Government" may be changed to "the Government or Prime Contractor."
(3) The subcontract special terms regarding default shall include paragraph (h) of the Progress Payments clause in the contract through its subdivision (i). The rest of paragraph (h) is optional.
(f) When financing payments are in the form of performance-based payments, the Performance-Based Payments clause at 52.232-32 requires that the subcontract terms include the substance of the Performance-Based Payments clause, modified to indicate that the contractor, not the Government, awards the subcontract and administers the performance-based payments, and include appropriately worded modifications similar to those noted in paragraph (e) of this section.
(g) When financing payments are in the form of commercial product or commercial service purchase financing, the subcontract must include a contract financing clause structured in accordance with 32.206.
Subpart 32.6 - Contract Debts
32.600 Scope of subpart.
This subpart prescribes policies and procedures for identifying, collecting, and deferring collection of contract debts (including interest, if applicable). Sections 32.607, 32.608, and 32.610 of this subpart do not apply to claims against common carriers for transportation overcharges and freight and cargo losses (31 U.S. C. 3726).
(a) Contract debts are amounts that-
(1) Have been paid to a contractor to which the contractor is not currently entitled under the terms and conditions of the contract; or
(2) Are otherwise due from the contractor under the terms and conditions of the contract.
(b) Contract debts include, but are not limited to, the following:
(1) Billing and price reductions resulting from contract terms for price redetermination or for determination of prices under incentive type contracts.
(2) Price or cost reductions for defective certified cost or pricing data.
(3) Financing payments determined to be in excess of the contract limitations at 52.232-16(a)(7), Progress Payments, or 52.232-32(d)(2), Performance-Based Payments, or any contract clause for financing of commercial products or commercial services.
(4) Increases to financing payment liquidation rates.
(5) Overpayments disclosed by quarterly statements required under price redetermination or incentive contracts.
(6) Price adjustments resulting from Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) noncompliances or changes in cost accounting practice.
(7) Reinspection costs for nonconforming supplies or services.
(8) Duplicate or erroneous payments.
(9) Damages or excess costs related to defaults in performance.
(10) Breach of contract obligations concerning progress payments, performance-based payments, advance payments, financing of commercial products or commercial services, or Government-furnished property.
(11) Government expense of correcting defects.
(12) Overpayments related to errors in quantity or billing or deficiencies in quality.
(13) Delinquency in contractor payments due under agreements or arrangements for deferral or postponement of collections.
(a) The contracting officer has primary responsibility for identifying and demanding payment of contract debts except those resulting from errors made by the payment office. The contracting officer shall not collect contract debts or otherwise agree to liquidate contract debts (e.g., offset the amount of the debt against existing unpaid bills due the contractor, or allow contractors to retain contract debts to cover amounts that may become payable in future periods).
(b) The payment office has primary responsibility for-
(1) Collecting contract debts identified by contracting officers;
(2) Identifying and collecting duplicate and erroneous payments; and
(3) Authorizing the liquidation of contract debts in accordance with agency procedures.
32.603 Debt determination.
(a) If the contracting officer has any indication that a contractor owes money to the Government under a contract, the contracting officer shall determine promptly whether an actual debt is due and the amount. Any unnecessary delay may contribute to-
(1) Loss of timely availability of the funds to the program for which the funds were initially provided;
(2) Increased difficulty in collecting the debt; or
(3) Actual monetary loss to the Government.
(b) The amount of indebtedness determined by the contracting officer shall be an amount that-
(1) Is based on the merits of the case; and
(2) Is consistent with the contract terms.
32.604 Demand for payment.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the contracting officer shall take the following actions:
(1) Issue the demand for payment as soon as the contracting officer has determined that an actual debt is due the Government and the amount.
(2) Issue the demand for payment even if-
(i) The debt is or will be the subject of a bilateral modification;
(ii) The contractor is otherwise obligated to pay the money under the existing contract terms; or
(iii) The contractor has agreed to repay the debt.
(3) Issue the demand for payment as a part of the final decision, if a final decision is required by 32.605(a).
(b) The demand for payment shall include the following:
(1) A description of the debt, including the debt amount.
(2) A distribution of the principal amount of the debt by line(s) of accounting subject to the following:
(i) If the debt affects multiple lines of accounting, the contracting officer shall, to the maximum extent practicable, identify all affected lines of accounting. If it is not practicable to identify all affected lines of accounting, the contracting officer may select representative lines of accounting in accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section.
(ii) In selecting representative lines of accounting, the contracting officer shall-
(A) Consider the affected departments or agencies, years of appropriations, and the predominant types of appropriations; and
(B) Not distribute to any line of accounting an amount of the principal in excess of the total obligation for the line of accounting; and
(iii) Include the lines of accounting even if the associated funds are expired or cancelled. While cancelled funds will be deposited in a miscellaneous receipt account of the Treasury if collected, the funds are tracked under the closed year appropriation(s) to comply with the Anti-Deficiency Act.
(iv) If the debt affects multiple contracts and the lines of accounting are not readily available, the contracting officer shall-
(A) Issue the demand for payment without the distribution of the principal amount to the affected lines of accounting;
(B) Include a statement in the demand for payment advising when the distribution will be provided; and
(C) Provide the distribution by the date identified in the demand for payment.
(3) The basis for and amount of any accrued interest or penalty.
(i) For debts resulting from specific contract terms (e.g., debts resulting from incentive clause provisions, Quarterly Limitation on Payments Statement, Cost Accounting Standards, price reduction for defective pricing), a notification stating that payment should be made promptly, and that interest is due in accordance with the terms of the contract. Interest shall be computed from the date specified in the applicable contract clause until repayment by the contractor. The interest rate shall be the rate specified in the applicable contract clause. In the case of a debt arising from a price reduction for defective pricing, or as specifically set forth in a Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) clause in the contract, interest is computed from the date of overpayment by the Government until repayment by the contractor at the underpayment rate established by the Secretary of the Treasury, for the periods affected, under 26 U.S.C . 6621(a)(2).
(ii) For all other contract debts, a notification stating that any amounts not paid within 30 days from the date of the demand for payment will bear interest. Interest shall be computed from the date of the demand for payment until repayment by the contractor. The interest rate shall be the interest rate established by the Secretary of the Treasury, as provided in 41 U.S.C. 7109, which is applicable to the period in which the amount becomes due, and then at the rate applicable for each six-month period as established by the Secretary until the amount is paid.
(5) A statement advising the contractor-
(i) To contact the contracting officer if the contractor believes the debt is invalid or the amount is incorrect; and
(ii) If the contractor agrees, to remit a check payable to the agency’s payment office annotated with the contract number along with a copy of the demand for payment to the payment office identified in the contract or as otherwise specified in the demand letter in accordance with agency procedures.
(6) Notification that the payment office may initiate procedures, in accordance with the applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, to offset the debt against any payments otherwise due the contractor.
(7) Notification that the debt may be subject to administrative charges in accordance with the requirements of 31U.S. C. 3717(e) and the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996.
(8) Notification that the contractor may submit a request for installment payments or deferment of collection if immediate payment is not practicable or if the amount is disputed.
(c) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the contracting officer should not issue a demand for payment if the contracting officer only becomes aware of the debt when the contractor-
(1) Provides a lump sum payment or submits a credit invoice. (A credit invoice is a contractor’s request to liquidate the debt against existing unpaid bills due the contractor); or
(2) Notifies the contracting officer that the payment office overpaid on an invoice payment. When the contractor provides the notification, the contracting officer shall notify the payment office of the overpayment.
(d) If a demand for payment was not issued as provided for in paragraph (c) of this section, the contracting officer shall issue a demand for payment no sooner than 30 days after the contracting officer becomes aware of the debt unless-
(1) The contractor has liquidated the debt;
(2) The contractor has requested an installment payment agreement; or
(3) The payment office has issued a demand for payment.
(e) The contracting officer shall-
(1) Furnish a copy of the demand for payment to the contractor by certified mail, return receipt requested, or by any other method that provides evidence of receipt; and
(2) Forward a copy of the demand to the payment office.
32.605 Final decisions.
(a) The contracting officer shall issue a final decision as required by 33.211 if-
(1) The contracting officer and the contractor are unable to reach agreement on the existence or amount of a debt in a timely manner;
(2) The contractor fails to liquidate a debt previously demanded by the contracting officer within the timeline specified in the demand for payment unless the amounts were not repaid because the contractor has requested an installment payment agreement; or
(3) The contractor requests a deferment of collection on a debt previously demanded by the contracting officer (see 32.607-2).
(b) If a demand for payment was previously issued for the debt, the demand for payment included in the final decision shall identify the same due date as the original demand for payment.
(c) The contracting officer shall-
(1) Furnish the decision to the contractor by certified mail, return receipt requested, or by any other method that provides evidence of receipt; and
(2) Forward a copy to the payment office identified in the contract.
32.606 Debt collection.
(a) If the contractor has not liquidated the debt within 30 days of the date due or requested installment payments or deferment of collection, the payment office shall initiate withholding of principal, interest, penalties, and administrative charges. In the event the contract is assigned under the Assignment of Claims Act of 1940 (31 U.S .C. 3727 and 41U.S .C. 6305), the rights of the assignee will be scrupulously respected and withholding of payments shall be consistent with those rights. For additional information on assignment of claims, see subpart 32.8.
(b) As provided for in the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996 (31 U.S .C. 3711(g)(1)), payment offices are required to transfer any debt that is delinquent more than 180 days to the Department of Treasury for collection.
(c) The contracting officer shall periodically follow up with the payment office to determine whether the debt has been collected and credited to the correct appropriation(s).
32.607 Installment payments and deferment of collection.
(a) The contracting officer shall not approve or deny a contractor’s request for installment payments or deferment of collections. The office designated in agency procedures is responsible for approving or denying requests for installment payments or deferment of collections.
(b) If a contractor has not appealed the debt or filed an action under the Disputes clause of the contract and the contractor has submitted a proposal for debt deferment or installment payments-
(1) The office designated in agency procedures may arrange for deferment/installment payments if the contractor is unable to pay at once in full or the contractor’s operations under national defense contracts would be seriously impaired. The arrangement shall include appropriate covenants and securities and should be limited to the shortest practicable maturity; and
(2) The deferment/installment agreement shall include a specific schedule or plan for payment. It should permit the Government to make periodic financial reviews of the contractor and to require payments earlier than required by the agreement if the Government considers the contractor’s ability to pay improved. It should also provide for required stated or measurable payments on the occurrence of specific events or contingencies that improve the contractor’s ability to pay.
(c) If not already applicable under the contract terms, interest on contract debt shall be made an element of any agreement entered into for installment payments or deferment of collection.
32.607-1 Installment payments.
If a contractor requests an installment payment agreement, the contracting officer shall notify the contractor to send a written request for installment payments to the office designated in agency procedures.
32.607-2 Deferment of collection.
(a) All requests for deferment of collection must be submitted in writing to the contracting officer.
(1) If the contractor has appealed the debt under the procedures of the Disputes clause of the contract, the information with the request for deferment may be limited to an explanation of the contractor’s financial condition.
(2) Actions filed by contractors under the Disputes Clause shall not suspend or delay collection.
(3) If there is no appeal pending or action filed under the Disputes clause of the contract, the following information about the contractor should be submitted with the request:
(i) Financial condition.
(ii) Contract backlog.
(iii) Projected cash receipts and requirements.
(iv) The feasibility of immediate payment of the debt.
(v) The probable effect on operations of immediate payment in full.
(b) Upon receipt of the contractor’s written request, the contracting officer shall promptly provide a notification to the payment office and advise the payment office that the contractor’s request is under consideration.
(1) The contracting officer should consider any information necessary to develop a recommendation on the deferment request.
(2) The contracting officer shall forward the following to the office designated in agency procedures for a decision:
(i) A copy of the contractor’s request for a deferment of collection.
(ii) A written recommendation on the request and the basis for the recommendation including the advisability of deferment to avoid possible overcollections.
(iii) A statement as to whether the contractor has an appeal pending or action filed under the Disputes clause of the contract and the docket number if the appeal has been filed.
(iv) A copy of the contracting officer’s final decision (see 32.605).
(d) The office designated in agency procedures may authorize a deferment pending the resolution of appeal to avoid possible overcollections. The agency is required to use unexpired funds to pay interest on overcollections.
(e) Deferments pending disposition of appeal may be granted to small business concerns and financially weak contractors, balancing the need for Government security against loss and undue hardship on the contractor.
(f) The deferment agreement shall not provide that a claim of the Government will not become due and payable pending mutual agreement on the amount of the claim or, in the case of a dispute, until the decision is reached.
(g) At a minimum, the deferment agreement shall contain the following:
(1) A description of the debt.
(2) The date of first demand for payment.
(3) Notice of an interest charge, in conformity with 32.608 and the FAR clause at 52.232-17, Interest; or, in the case of a debt arising from a defective pricing or a CAS noncompliance overpayment, interest, as prescribed by the applicable Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data or CAS clause (see 32.607(c)).
(4) Identification of the office to which the contractor is to send debt payments.
(5) A requirement for the contractor to submit financial information requested by the Government and for reasonable access to the contractor’s records and property by Government representatives.
(6) Provision for the Government to terminate the deferment agreement and accelerate the maturity of the debt if the contractor defaults or if bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings are instituted by or against the contractor.
(7) Protective requirements that are considered by the Government to be prudent and feasible in the specific circumstances. The coverage of protective terms at 32.409 and 32.501-5 may be used as a guide.
(h) If a contractor appeal of the debt determination is pending, the deferment agreement shall also include a requirement that the contractor shall-
(1) Diligently prosecute the appeal; and
(2) Pay the debt in full when the appeal is decided, or when the parties reach agreement on the debt amount.
(i) The deferment agreement may provide for the right to make early payments without prejudice, for refund of overpayments, and for crediting of interest.
32.608-1 Interest charges.
Unless specified otherwise in the clause at 52.232-17, Interest, interest charges shall apply to any contract debt unpaid after 30 days from the issuance of a demand unless-
(a) The contract is a kind excluded under 32.611; or
(b) The contract or debt has been exempted from interest charges under agency procedures.
32.608-2 Interest credits.
(a) An equitable interest credit shall be applied under the following circumstances:
(1) When the amount of debt initially determined is subsequently reduced; e.g., through a successful appeal.
(2) When any amount collected by the Government is in excess of the amount found to be due on appeal under the Disputes Clause of the contract.
(3) When the collection procedures followed in a given case result in an overcollection of the debt due.
(4) When the responsible official determines that the Government has unduly delayed payments to the contractor on the same contract at some time during the period to which the interest charge applied, provided an interest penalty was not paid for such late payment.
(b) Any appropriate interest credits shall be computed under the following procedures:
(1) Interest at the rate under 52.232-17 shall be charged on the reduced debt from the date of collection by the Government until the date the monies are remitted to the contractor.
(2) Interest may not be reduced for any time between the due date under the demand and the period covered by a deferment of collection, unless the contract includes an interest clause; e.g., the clause prescribed in 32.611.
(3) Interest shall not be credited in an amount that, when added to other amounts refunded or released to the contractor, exceeds the total amount that has been collected, or withheld for the purpose of collecting the debt. This limitation shall be further reduced by the amount of any limitation applicable under paragraph (b)(2) of this subsection.
32.609 Delays in receipt of notices or demands.
If interest is accrued based on the date of the demand letter and delivery of the demand letter is delayed by the Government (e.g., undue delay after dating at the originating office or delays in the mail), the date of the debt and accrual of interest shall be extended to a time that is fair and reasonable under the particular circumstances.
32.610 Compromising debts.
For debts under $100,000, excluding interest, the designated agency official may compromise the debt pursuant to the Federal Claims Collection Standards (31 CFR part 902) and agency regulations. Unless specifically authorized by agency procedures,