1852.228-70 Aircraft ground and flight risk.
As prescribed in 1828.370(a), insert the following clause. The purpose of this clause is to have the Government assume risks that generally entail unusually high insurance premiums and are not covered by the contractor's contents, work-in-process, and similar insurance. Since the definitions in the clause may not cover every situation that should be covered to achieve this purpose, the clause may be modified as follows: If the contract covers helicopters, vertical take-off aircraft, lighter-than-air airships, or other nonconventional types of aircraft, the definition of “aircraft” should be modified to specify that the aircraft has reached a point of manufacture comparable to that specified in the standard definition, which is written for conventional winged aircraft. The definition of “in the open” may be modified to include “hush houses,” test hangars, comparable structures, and other designated areas. In addition, clause paragraph (d)(3) may be modified to provide for Government assumption of risk of transportation by conveyance on streets or highways if the contracting officer determines that this transportation is limited to the vicinity of the contractor's premises and is merely incident to work being performed under the contract.
Aircraft Ground and Flight Risk (OCT 1996)
(a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this contract, except as may be specifically provided in the Schedule as an exception to this clause, the Government, subject to the definitions and limitations of this clause, assumes the risk of damage to, or loss or destruction of, aircraft in the open, during operation, or in flight and agrees that the Contractor shall not be liable to the Government for any such damage, loss, or destruction.
(b) For the purposes of this clause, the following definitions apply:
(1) Unless otherwise specifically provided in the Schedule, “aircraft” includes—
(i) Aircraft (including both complete aircraft and aircraft in the course of being manufactured, disassembled, or reassembled; provided that an engine, wing, or a portion of a wing is attached to the fuselage) to be furnished to the Government under this contract (whether before or after Government acceptance); and
(ii) Aircraft (regardless of whether in a state of disassembly or reassembly) furnished by the Government to the Contractor under this contract, including all property installed in, being installed in, or temporarily removed from them, unless the aircraft and property are covered by a separate bailment agreement.
(2) “In the open” means located wholly outside of buildings on the Contractor's premises, or at such other places as may be described in the Schedule as being in the open for the purposes of this clause, except that aircraft furnished by the Government are considered to be in the open at all times while in the Contractor's possession, care, custody, or control.
(3) “Flight” includes any flight demonstration, flight test, taxi test, or other flight made in the performance of this contract, or for the purpose of safeguarding the aircraft, or previously approved in writing by the Contracting Officer.
(i) With respect to land-based aircraft, flight commences with the taxi roll from a flight line on the Contractor's premises and continues until the aircraft has completed the taxi roll in returning to a flight line on the Contractor's premises.
(ii) With respect to seaplanes, flight commences with the launching from a ramp on the Contractor's premises and continues until the aircraft has completed its landing run upon return and is beached at a ramp on the Contractor's premises.
(iii) With respect to helicopters, flight commences upon engagement of the rotors for the purpose of take-off from the Contractor's premises and continues until the aircraft has returned to the ground on the Contractor's premises and the rotors are disengaged.
(iv) With respect to vertical take-off aircraft, flight commences upon disengagement from any launching platform or device on the Contractor's premises and continues until the aircraft has been re-engaged to any launching platform or device on the Contractor's premises; provided, however, that aircraft off the Contractor's premises shall be deemed to be in flight when on the ground or water only during periods of reasonable duration following emergency landing, other landings made in the performance of this contract, or landings approved by the Contracting Officer in writing.
(4) “Contractor's premises” means those premises designated as such in the Schedule or in writing by the Contracting Officer, and any other place to which aircraft are moved for the purpose of safeguarding the aircraft.
(5) “Operation” means operations and tests, other than on any production line, of aircraft not in flight, whether or not the aircraft is in the open or in motion. It includes operations and tests of equipment, accessories, and power plants only when installed in aircraft.
(6) “Flight crew members” means the pilot, copilot, and, unless otherwise specifically provided in the Schedule, the flight engineer and navigator when requirement or assigned to their respective crew positions to conduct any flight on behalf of the Contractor.
(7) “Contractor's managerial personnel” means the Contractor's directors, officers, and any managers, superintendents, or equivalent representatives who have supervision or direction of all or substantially all of the Contractor's business or of the Contractor's operations at any one plant, a separate location at which this contract is performed, or a separate and complete major industrial operation in connection with the performance of this contract.
(1) The Government's assumption of risk under this clause, as to aircraft in the open, shall continue in effect unless terminated pursuant to paragraph (c)(3) of this clause. If the Contracting Officer finds that an aircraft is in the open under unreasonable conditions, the Contracting Officer shall notify the Contractor in writing of the conditions found to be unreasonable and require the Contractor to correct them within a reasonable time.
(2) Upon receipt of this notice, the Contractor shall act promptly to correct these conditions, regardless of whether it agrees that they are in fact unreasonable. To the extent that the Contracting Officer may later determine that they were not in fact unreasonable, an equitable adjustment shall be made in the contract price to compensate the Contractor for any additional costs incurred in correcting them, and the contract shall be modified in writing accordingly.
(i) If the Contracting Officer finds that the Contractor has failed to act promptly to correct unreasonable conditions or has failed to correct them within a reasonable time, the Contracting Officer may by written notice terminate the Government's assumption of risk under this clause for any aircraft which is in the open under those conditions. This termination shall be effective at 12:01 A.M. on the 15th day following the day of receipt by the Contractor of the notice.
(ii) If the Contracting Officer later determines that the Contractor acted promptly to correct the conditions or that the time taken by the Contractor was not in fact unreasonable, an equitable adjustment shall, notwithstanding paragraph (g) of this clause, be made to compensate the Contractor for any additional costs incurred as a result of the termination, and the contract shall be modified in writing accordingly.
(4) If the Government's assumption of risk under this clause is terminated in accordance with paragraph (c)(3) of this clause, the risk of loss with respect to Government-furnished property shall be determined in accordance with the Government property clause of this contract, if any, until the Government's assumption of risk is reinstated in accordance with paragraph (c)(5) of this clause.
(i) When unreasonable conditions have been corrected, the Contractor shall promptly notify the Government. The Government may or may not elect to reassume the risks and relieve the Contractor of liabilities as provided in this clause, and the Contracting Officer shall notify the Contractor of the Government's election.
(ii) If, after correction of the conditions, the Government elects to reassume the risks and relieve the Contractor of liabilities, the Contractor shall be entitled to an equitable adjustment for any costs of insurance extending from the end of the third working day after the Contractor notifies the Government of the correction until the Government notifies the Contractor of that election.
(iii) If the Government elects not to reassume the risks and the conditions have in fact been corrected, the Contractor shall be entitled to an equitable adjustment for any costs of insurance extending after the third working day referred to in paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this clause.
(d) The Government's assumption of risk shall not extend to damage to, or loss or destruction of aircraft—
(1) Resulting from failure of the Contractor, due to willful misconduct or lack of good faith of any of the Contractor's managerial personnel, to maintain and administer a program for protecting and preserving aircraft in the open and during operation, in accordance with sound industrial practice;
(2) Sustained during flight if the flight crew members conducting the flight have not been approved in writing by the Contracting Officer;
(3) While in the course of transportation by rail or by conveyance on public streets, highways, or waterways, except for Government-furnished property;
(4) The extent that the damage, loss, or destruction is in fact covered by insurance;
(5) Consisting of wear and tear, deterioration (including rust and corrosion), freezing, or mechanical, structural, or electrical breakdown or failure, unless this damage is the result of other loss, damage, or destruction covered by this clause (except that, in the case of Government-furnished property, if the damage consists of reasonable wear and tear or deterioration or results from an inherent defect in such property, this exclusion shall not apply); or
(6) Sustained while the aircraft is being worked upon and directly resulting from the work, including but not limited to any repairing, adjusting, servicing, or maintenance operation, unless the damage, loss, or destruction is of a type that would be covered by insurance that would customarily have been maintained by the Contractor at the time of the damage, loss, or destruction, but for the Government's assumption of risk under this clause.
(1) With the exception of damage to, or loss or destruction of, aircraft in flight, the Government's assumption of risk under this clause shall not extend to the first $1,000 of loss or damage resulting from each separately occurring event. The Contractor assumes the risk of and shall be responsible for the first $1,000 of loss of or damage to aircraft in the open or during operation resulting from each separately occurring event, except for reasonable wear and tear and except to the extent the loss or damage is caused by negligence of Government personnel.
(2) If the Government elects to require that the aircraft be replaced or restored by the Contractor to its condition immediately prior to the damage, the equitable adjustment in the price authorized by paragraph
(i) of this clause shall not include the dollar amount of the risk assumed by the Contractor under this paragraph (e). If the Government does not elect repair or replacement, the Contractor agrees to credit the contract price or pay the Government $1,000 (or the amount of the loss if smaller) as directed by the Contracting Officer.
(f) No subcontractor may be relieved from liability for damage to, or loss or destruction of, aircraft while in its possession or control, except to the extent that the subcontract, with the Contracting Officer's prior written approval, provides for relief of the subcontractor from that liability. In the absence of such approval, the subcontract shall require the return of the aircraft in as good condition as when received, except for reasonable wear and tear or for the utilization of the property in accordance with the provisions of this contract. If a subcontractor has not been relieved from liability and any damage, loss, or destruction occurs, the Contractor shall enforce the liability of the subcontractor for that damage to, or loss or destruction of, the aircraft for the benefit of the Government.
(g) The Contractor warrants that the contract price does not and will not include, except as this clause may otherwise authorize, any charge or contingency reserve for insurance (including self-insurance funds or reserves) covering any damage to, or loss or destruction of, aircraft while in the open, during operation, or in flight, the risk of which has been assumed by the Government under this clause, whether or not such assumption may be terminated as to aircraft in the open.
(1) In the event of damage to, or loss or destruction of, aircraft in the open, during operation, or in flight, the Contractor shall take all reasonable steps to protect the aircraft from further damage, separate damaged and undamaged aircraft, and put all aircraft in the best possible order. Further, except in cases covered by paragraph (e) of this clause, the Contractor should furnish to the Contracting Officer a statement of—
(i) The damaged, lost, or destroyed aircraft;
(ii) The time and origin of the damage, loss, or destruction;
(iii) All known interests in commingled property of which aircraft are a part; and
(iv) Any insurance covering any part of the interest in the commingled property.
(2) Except in cases covered by paragraph (e) of this clause, an equitable adjustment shall be made in the amount due under this contract for expenditures made by the Contractor in performing its obligations under this paragraph (h), and this contract shall be modified in writing accordingly.
(i)(1) If, before delivery and acceptance by the Government, any aircraft is damaged, lost, or destroyed and the Government has under this clause assumed the risk of that damage, loss, or destruction, the Government shall either
(i) Require that the aircraft be replaced or restored by the Contractor to its condition immediately prior to the damage or
(ii) Terminate this contract with respect to that aircraft.
(2) If the Government requires that the aircraft be replaced or restored, an equitable adjustment shall be made in the amount due under this contract and in the time required for its performance, and the contract shall be modified in writing accordingly.
(3) If this contract is terminated under this paragraph (i)(1)(ii) with respect to the aircraft, and under this clause the Government has assumed the risk of the damage, loss, or destruction, the Contractor shall be paid the contract price for the aircraft (or, if applicable, any work to be performed on the aircraft) less any amounts the Contracting Officer determines (i) that it would have cost the Contractor to complete the aircraft (or any work to be performed on it), together with any anticipated profit on the uncompleted work and (ii) to be the value, if any, of the damaged aircraft or any remaining portion of it retained by the Contractor. The Contracting Officer shall have the right to prescribe the manner of disposition of the damaged, lost, or destroyed aircraft or any remaining parts of it, and, if the Contractor incurs additional costs as a result of such disposition, a further equitable adjustment shall be made in the amount due to the Contractor.
(1) If the Contractor is at any time reimbursed or compensated by any third person for any damage, loss, or destruction of any aircraft, the risk of which has been assumed by the Government under this clause and for which the Contractor has been compensated by the Government, it shall equitably reimburse the Government.
(2) The Contractor shall do nothing to prejudice the Government's rights to recover against third parties for any such damage, loss, or destruction and, upon the request of the Contracting Officer, shall at the Government's expense furnish to the Government all reasonable assistance and cooperation (including the prosecution of suits and the execution of instruments of assignment or subrogation in favor of the Government) in obtaining recovery.