42.709-4 Assessing the penalty.
Unless a waiver is granted pursuant to 42.709-6, the cognizant contracting officer shall-
(a) Assess the penalty in 42.709-2(a)(1), when the submitted cost is expressly unallowable under a cost principle in the FAR or an executive agency supplement that defines the allowability of specific selected costs; or
(b) Assess the penalty in 42.709-2(a)(2), when the submitted cost was determined to be unallowable for that contractor prior to submission of the proposal. Prior determinations of unallowability may be evidenced by-
(1) A DCAA Form1, Notice of Contract Costs Suspended and/or Disapproved (see 48 CFR 242.705-2), or any similar notice which the contractor elected not to appeal and was not withdrawn by the cognizant Government agency;
(2) A contracting officer final decision which was not appealed;
(3) A prior executive agency Board of Contract Appeals or court decision involving the contractor, which upheld the cost disallowance; or
(4) A determination or agreement of unallowability under 31.201-6.
(c) Issue a final decision (see 33.211) which includes a demand for payment of any penalty assessed under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. The letter shall state that the determination is a final decision under the Disputes clause of the contract. (Demanding payment of the penalty is separate from demanding repayment of any paid portion of the disallowed cost.)